Philip V of Macedonia (238 BC - 179 BC)

Philip V (238-179 BC) was king of the ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia from 221 to 179 BC. Philip's reign was marked mainly by the Second Allied War (220-217 BC) and the struggle with the emerging power of the Roman Republic. He will lead Macedonia against Rome in the First (212-205 BC) and Second Macedonian War (200-196 BC). While he lost the latter, Philip later allied himself with Rome against Antiochus III in the Roman-Seleucid War. He died in 179 BC. from illness after efforts to recover the military and economic status of Macedonia and handed over the throne to his eldest son, Perseus of Macedonia.
Didrachm of Philip, 184-179 BC.

The first years of the reign
After the unexpected death of his father Demetrius II Aitolikos in 229 BC, Philip was only nine years old and by extension it was impossible to ascend the throne. A possible succession dispute was avoided by the election of another grandson of Demetrius I the Besieger: the son of Demetrius the Good (half-brother of Antigonus II Gonatas) of Antigonus III, called "Doson". After the death of the latter in 221 BC, the now seventeen-year-old Philip inherits a strong Macedonia again, which has managed to impose its sovereignty in the Peloponnese, after a war against Cleomenes III's Sparta.
Hellenistic bust of a man wearing a laurel wreath, possibly depicting Philip V of Macedon, bronze alloy, circa 200 BC, of ​​Macedonian origin, now in the Virginia Museum of Fine Arts, Richmond

After Philip's accession to the throne, some cities wish to take advantage of his youth to increase their power at the expense of Macedonia and the Achaean Commonwealth. The Aetolians therefore launch a series of military operations against Phocis and Boeotia. The following autumn, Philip gathered the members of the Congress, which his predecessor Antigonus had created in Corinth, where it was decided to declare war against the Aetolian Commonwealth. The Allied War begins in 220 BC. and ended in 217. During his tenure Philip demonstrated his talent for strategy, turning the war to his advantage. He invaded the territory of the Aetolians and destroyed the capital of the Commonwealth, Thermo (218 BC). After the peace of Nafpaktos was signed, Philip turned against the Illyrians. During the campaign he finds on his way the Romans and their allies near Apollonia, in 214 BC. The First Macedonian War is now inevitable. Philip allies in 215 BC. with Hannibal, general of Carthage, who already conducts since 218 BC. war in Italy. As was logical, the Romans find new allies: directly the Aetolians, but also indirectly the ruler of Pergamum, Attalus I the Saviour. Philip throws himself on all fronts, channeling all his energy into playing the role of protector of his allies exceptionally well. Once again, the peace signed in Phoenicia in 205 BC. is favorable to him.

Businesses in the Aegean
In 205 – 204 BC in Egypt Ptolemy V Epiphanes ascends the throne, who is still a child. Philip, in order to have his hands free, signs a non-aggression pact with the king of the Seleucids, Antiochus III. Then he starts a series of new businesses in the Aegean. In 202 BC conducts a campaign aimed at the Straits. The following year, he conquered Samos, which belonged to Ptolemaic Egypt. Many states are then allied against him, among them Rhodes and Pergamos. Two naval battles take place on currently unknown dates. In the seas of Chios, the battle is inconclusive, but the fleet of Pergamum retreats. This is followed by a major victory for Philip against the Rhodesian fleet.

The Roman threat
But in the West, the threat this time is definite, as the Romans now have their sights set on Greek affairs. After the invitation of Rhodes and Pergamum, the Senate decides to intervene opposing Philip. He sends him two ultimatums, one in 200 BC, the other in 198 BC. Rome presents itself as a protecting power against Philip, who presents himself as the conqueror. Roman army operations begin in the fall of 200 BC, beginning the Second Macedonian War. In the same year the Macedonian king plunders Abydos.

In June 197 BC, the warring armies, Macedonian and Roman, meet at Kynos Kefales in Thessaly, on a plateau north of Pharsalus. The flexibility of Roman tactics outweighed the weight of the Macedonian phalanx. Philip was defeated by Titus Quinctius Flamininus. This is his first defeat, but it was decisive. The terms of the peace agreed upon are such as to show that Macedonia is getting out of the game of influence for a long time. She lost all her possessions outside of Macedonia, including Thessaly. He was also obliged to pay a war indemnity and send his second son, Demetrius, to Rome as a hostage. In 196 BC Titus declares all the Greek cities "free and autonomous", creating a vacuum in power, which attracts the interest of Antiochus III, who in the following years will be involved in a series of battles aimed at dominating the Greek space. The allies of the Romans, the Aetolians showed great dissatisfaction with the terms of the peace, as they wished to remove Philip from the throne.
Bust of Philip V of Macedonia in Palazzo Massimo (Rome)

The recovery
In the following years, new wars were fought by the Romans against Sparta and the Aetolians, who sought allies even among the Macedonians. Philip refused to help since in the past they had called for his impeachment. Eventually the allies were defeated by the Romans, who, however, did not destroy Sparta, wanting someone to control things in the Peloponnese. Philip, for his part, behaves as a perfect ally of Rome. He even participated in the Roman campaign against the Seleucids and Antiochus III during the period (191 – 189 BC). Demetrius was also allowed to return to his home. But his father, disillusioned by his poor campaign rewards and annoyed by the Senate's continued hostility to him, slowly manages to get Macedonia on its feet again, reorganizing the army and the state, increasing its revenues and allowing various cities to mint currency. He allies himself with a people of Celtic or Germanic origin (it is a matter of doubt), the Vastarnes, and decides many movements of populations.

At one point he refused to evacuate some cities in Thrace and Thessaly to be assigned to Eumenes II, king of Pergamum. He, being unable to expel Philip by force, complained to the Romans. Philip continued to refuse and even captured two neutral cities near Pergamum. At the same time, he again sent Demetrius on a diplomatic mission to Rome in order to change the situation in favor of Macedonia. Demetrius made powerful friends and hoped to achieve his objective with their help, but the abilities of his emissary Eumenes prevented him.

The last years & the succession
The end of Philip V's life was also marked by a family tragedy, the only record of domestic murder we have for the Antigonids. Philip V had acquired his eldest son and successor, Perseus, with Polykratia from Argos. From another wife, whose name is unknown to us, he had two daughters and a son, Dimitrios. The latter, as we have seen, lived for some years in Rome as a hostage and finally returned in 191 BC. due to the observance of the alliance with Rome by his father, Philip V. Apparently Demetrius was popular with the Romans which worried his older brother and heir to the throne. Finally Perseus presented to Philip V some documents that proved that Demetrius intended, in cooperation with the Romans, to take the throne into his own hands. It is uncertain whether the documents were forged or genuine, but they caused Demetrius to be executed by his father, who was left devastated by the event. He dies in 179 BC. in Amphipolis and leaves his throne to Perseus. With this last one, the Antigonid Dynasty is completed, as he was also the last king of Macedonia.

To Philip V Paton attributes the XVI 26B epigram of the Greek Anthology (from the Anthology of Planoudis), a response to the VII 247 epigram of Alcaeus of Messenius.

By his -probably concubine- Polykrateia from Argos he had a child:

Perseus 212-166 BC, king of Macedonia.
By his legal wife - name unknown - he had children:

Apama 4th 2nd century BC, married her cousin Prussia II of Bithynia.
Demetrius, Prince of Macedonia.
Philip, Prince of Macedonia.

238 BC Birth of Philip V, son of Demetrius II of Aitolikos.
229 BC Unexpected death of Demetrius II from a wound in battle against the Dardanians. Antigonus III Doson is elected king of Macedonia, until Philip comes of age.
222 BC At the Battle of Sellasia, Antigonus decisively defeats the Spartans and enters their city.
221 BC Invasion of the Illyrians in Macedonia. Antigonus rushes to confront them and dies in battle. He is succeeded by Philip V.
The Aetolians attack Phocis and Argolis.
220 BC Beginning of the Second Allied War. Philip achieves important victories in the Peloponnese.
217 BC The war is ending. Peace is signed with terms favorable to Philip in Nafpaktos. His campaign against the Illyrians begins.
215 BC Philip allies himself with Hannibal, general of Carthage.
214 BC Beginning of the First Macedonian War.
213 BC Philip's successor, Perseus, is born.
211 BC The Romans and the Aetolian Commonwealth form an anti-Macedonian alliance.
206 BC Birth of his second son, Dimitrios.
205 BC Peace is signed with the Romans in Phoenicia. Conditions are once again favorable for Philip.
Series of raids and naval battles in the Aegean area. Alliance with Antiochus III of Syria.
200 BC Beginning of the Second Macedonian War. Philip sacks Abydos.
197 BC Battle of the Dog's Heads. Titus Quinctius Flamininus crushes Philip and forces him to sign a humiliating peace.
192 –188 BC Antiochus invades Greece taking advantage of the defeat of the Macedonians and the power vacuum created by the Romans. The Aetolians ally themselves with him and occupy Demetriada. Philip campaigns against Antiochus on the side of the Romans.
Macedonian reorganization movements. Dispute with Eumenes II, king of Pergamum, who complains to the Romans. A diplomatic mission was sent to Rome, headed by Demetrius.
181 BC Execution of Demetrius by his father on charges of conspiracy.
179 BC Death of Philip at Amphipolis. He is succeeded by the son of Perseus.

Spouse Polykrateia or Argea
Descendants Apama IV, Perseus, Demetrius, Philip
House of Antigens

M. Kleu, Die Seepolitik Philipps V. von Makedonien (Bochum 2015)
F. W. Walbank, Philip V of Macedon (Cambridge 1967) Archived 2007-07-15 at the Wayback Machine.
Antigonus III Doson revived the Congress of Corinth against Sparta in 224 BC. History of ancient civilization, Volume 1 By Albert Augustus Trever Page 479 ISBN 0-7735-2890-3
 W.R.Paton, “The Greek Anthology”, Loeb Classical Library, v.V, p. 174 and 399.