Πέμπτη 22 Φεβρουαρίου 2024

Οι αγώνες του μέλλοντος ξεκίνησαν στη Ρωσία

Οι αγώνες του μέλλοντος ξεκίνησαν στη Ρωσία . Κάνει ήδη τους ανθρώπους να ανατριχιάζουν. Μετά από αίτημα του Βλαντιμίρ Πούτιν, η Ρωσία διοργανώνει αυτή την εβδομάδα στο έδαφός της την πρώτη από τις τρεις διοργανώσεις πολλαπλών αθλημάτων στο ημερολόγιό της για το 2024.

Οι Future Games, ένας συνδυασμός ηλεκτρονικών αθλημάτων και πιο παραδοσιακών κλάδων, ξεκίνησαν τη Δευτέρα 19 Φεβρουαρίου στο Καζάν. Η τελετή έναρξης ανακοινώνεται για την Τετάρτη 21 Φεβρουαρίου. Οι διαγωνισμοί είναι προγραμματισμένοι να διαρκέσουν έως την Κυριακή 3 Μαρτίου.


Συνεπώς, η Ρωσία τηρεί την υπόσχεσή της. Ακόμα σε μεγάλο βαθμό απομονωμένο από το διεθνές αθλητικό κίνημα, φιλοξενεί τις δικές του πολυαθλητικές εκδηλώσεις στο σπίτι. Ο Βλαντιμίρ Πούτιν το πρότεινε τον περασμένο Μάιο. Το αίτημά του εκπληρώθηκε.

Μετά τους Μελλοντικούς Αγώνες, η ίδια πόλη του Καζάν θα φιλοξενήσει τους Αγώνες BRICS τον Ιούνιο (12 έως 23). Στη συνέχεια, η σειρά θα ολοκληρωθεί τον Σεπτέμβριο με τους Αγώνες Φιλίας, που έχουν προγραμματιστεί για τη Μόσχα και το Αικατερινούμπουργκ, μια εκδήλωση για την οποία η ΔΟΕ και ο Παγκόσμιος Οργανισμός κατά του Ντόπινγκ έχουν ήδη ξεσπάσει χειμαρρώδης κριτική.

Για τους πρώτους της Future Games, η Ρωσία δεν φοβήθηκε την ανάμειξη ειδών. Στο πρόγραμμα της πρώτης ημέρας των αγώνων, Δευτέρα 19 Φεβρουαρίου, ένα τουρνουά Dota 2, ένα βιντεοπαιχνίδι που οι διοργανωτές έχουν δυναμώσει προσθέτοντας μια πραγματική μάχη. Το πρακτορείο TASS ανακοινώνει τη συμμετοχή 16 ομάδων, κυρίως από τη Ρωσία, την Κίνα, το Περού, το Ιράν και τις Φιλιππίνες.

Επίσης στον λογαριασμό για την ημέρα των εγκαινίων είναι ένα τουρνουά χόκεϊ επί πάγου. Υβριδικό επίσης. Σε κάθε συνάντηση, οι παίκτες ανταγωνίζονται σε εικονική λειτουργία, μέσω ενός προσομοιωτή παιχνιδιού, πριν φορέσουν τα πατίνια τους και σκαρφαλώσουν στον πάγο για να συνεχίσουν την ανταλλαγή σε 3 εναντίον 3. Το αποτέλεσμα συνδυάζει τα γκολ που σημειώθηκαν στις δύο φάσεις της συνάντησης, ψηφιακό και σωματική.

Αργότερα κατά τη διάρκεια της εκδήλωσης, το πρόγραμμα θα προσφέρει μια απίθανη διαδοχή εικονικών και πιο παραδοσιακών εκδηλώσεων, όπως ένα ηλεκτρονικό τουρνουά μπάσκετ, μια μάχη ρομπότ, έναν αγώνα drone, έναν διαγωνισμό χορού προσομοιωτή, έναν διαδικτυακό αγώνα ποδηλασίας.

Πειστικός? Δύσκολο να πω. Απαραίτητο; Σίγουρα όχι. Το κυριότερο όμως είναι αλλού. Πολλαπλασιάζοντας τα δικά της πολυαθλήματα, η Ρωσία δεν επιδιώκει να καλύψει ένα κενό στο ημερολόγιο ή να προτείνει μια νέα προσέγγιση. Σκοπεύει να απαντήσει στις κυρώσεις που επιβλήθηκαν από το Ολυμπιακό κίνημα οργανώνοντας μεγάλες παραγωγές θεαμάτων από την αρχή.

Σύμφωνα με τον δήμαρχο του Καζάν, Ilsur Metshin, τον οποίο αναφέρουν τα ρωσικά μέσα ενημέρωσης, 1 αθλητής από 400 χώρες θα έκανε το ταξίδι για να συμμετάσχει στους Αγώνες του Μέλλοντος. «Περιμένουμε να εκπροσωπηθούν πάνω από 100 χώρες», πρόσθεσε, διευκρινίζοντας ότι οι διαγωνισμοί θα πραγματοποιηθούν σε δώδεκα διαφορετικούς χώρους.

Σύμφωνα με το Κρεμλίνο, η τελετή έναρξης θα σηματοδοτηθεί από την παρουσία «ξένων ηγετών». Οι οποίες ? Υπομονή, θα αποκαλυφθούν «στην ώρα τους». Σε αυτή τη φάση, μόνο ένα όνομα προβάλλει η Μόσχα, αυτό του Σαντίρ Ζαπάροφ, του προέδρου της Κιργιζίας.
Ένας άλλος επιβεβαιωμένος καλεσμένος: ο Roy Jones Jr. Ο πρώην πυγμάχος αμερικανικής καταγωγής πρόκειται να παραστεί στην τελετή έναρξης την Τετάρτη. Την παρουσία του επιβεβαίωσε στο TASS ο εκπρόσωπός του. Δεν αποτελεί πραγματικά έκπληξη. Εκτός από πολύ κοντά με τον πρόεδρο της IBA, τον Ρώσο Umar Kremlev, ο Roy Jones Jr έγινε Ρώσος πολίτης τον Σεπτέμβριο του 2015 με διάταγμα που υπέγραψε ο ίδιος ο Βλαντιμίρ Πούτιν.

Ο Ντμίτρι Τσερνισένκο, ο Ρώσος Αντιπρόεδρος της Κυβέρνησης, θέλει να ορκιστεί στη Βίβλο: οι Αγώνες του μέλλοντος θα βοηθήσουν να φέρει κοντά την αθλητική κοινότητα. «Πρόκειται για ένα παγκόσμιο γεγονός, ένα ρωσικό προϊόν που ανοίγει μια νέα σελίδα στην ιστορία του αθλητισμού», δήλωσε.

Μια πρόθυμη θριαμβευτική ομιλία που εκφώνησε ο Υπουργός Αθλητισμού, Oleg Matytsin. Για τον πρώην πρόεδρο της FISU, τα Games of the Future προσφέρουν «ένα καινοτόμο και πρωτοποριακό έργο που ξεκίνησε από τη Ρωσία».

Τετάρτη 21 Φεβρουαρίου 2024

Το νέο πυροσβεστικό πλοίο «Σάββας Σάββαρης»

Κατέπλευσε για πρώτη φορά στο κεντρικό λιμάνι της Καβάλας "Απόστολος Παύλος" το νέο πυροσβεστικό πλοίο «Σάββας Σάββαρης» 

Ο Σάββας Σάββαρης από τα Κάτω Πορόια , 44 ετών που υπηρετούσε στο Πυροσβεστικό κλιμάκιο Σιδηρόκαστρου, σύμφωνα με τις πληροφορίες, είχε πατήσει καλώδιο της ΔΕΗ και βρήκε τραγικό θάνατο, κατά τη διάρκεια κατάσβεσης στα Χρυσοχώραφα.

Το νέο πυροσβεστικό πλοίο πήρε το όνομα του για να τιμήσει τον πυροσβέστη από τον Δήμο Σιντικής που "έχασε" την ζωή του.

Τρίτη 20 Φεβρουαρίου 2024

Ήπειρος.. Δεύτερη φτωχότερη στη χώρα, στις φτωχότερες της Ευρώπης- Οι ανακοινώσεις της Eurostat

Το δεύτερο χαμηλότερο ΑΕΠ καταγράφει η Ήπειρος μεταξύ των 13 Περιφερειών της Ελλάδας και ένα από τα χαμηλότερα στην Ευρωπαική Ένωση. Στην τελευταία θέση μεταξύ των ελληνικών περιφερειών βρίσκεται το Βόρειο Αιγαίο και την προτελευταία μοιράζονται η Ήπειρος με την Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη.

Τα στοιχεία αυτή την φορά έρχονται από την Eurostat και αποτυπώνουν το μεγάλο αναπτυξιακό έλλειμμα της περιοχής.

Σύμφωνα με την ανακοίνωση που έγινε την Τρίτη, κάτω του 75% του μέσου όρου της ΕΕ, ήταν το κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ στις περιφέρειες της Ελλάδας, πλην της Αττικής, το 2022 με το Βόρειο Αιγαίο να καταγράφει το δεύτερο χαμηλότερο κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ στην ΕΕ, σύμφωνα με τα στοιχεία της Eurostat που δόθηκαν σήμερα στη δημοσιότητα.

Συγκεκριμένα, το 2022 το κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ εκπεφρασμένο σε μονάδες αγοραστικής δύναμης (PPS) στις περιφέρειες της ΕΕ κυμάνθηκε από 40% του μέσου όρου της ΕΕ στο Σεβεροζαπάντεν της Βουλγαρίας, έως 286% στη Νότια Ιρλανδία.

Μετά τη Νότια Ιρλανδία, οι περιφέρειες με το υψηλότερο κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ ήταν το Λουξεμβούργο (257% του μέσου όρου της ΕΕ), η Ανατολική και η Κεντρική Ιρλανδία (247%), η Πράγα της Τσεχίας (207%) και η περιφέρεια της πρωτεύουσας των Βρυξελλών (196%).

Το υψηλό κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ σε αυτές τις περιφέρειες, σύμφωνα με τη Eurostat, μπορεί να εξηγηθεί εν μέρει από την υψηλή εισροή εργαζομένων που μετακινούνται και από τις μεγάλες πολυεθνικές επιχειρήσεις που εδρεύουν εκεί.

Οι ελληνικές περιφέρειες

Αντίθετα, στη χαμηλότερη κατάταξη του περιφερειακού κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ το 2022 ήταν το Σεβεροζαπάντεν στη Βουλγαρία (40% του μέσου όρου της ΕΕ), το Βόρειο Αιγαίο (41%) και το Severen Tsentralen στη Βουλγαρία (42%).

Ειδικότερα για τις ελληνικές περιφέρειες, μετά το Βόρειο Αιγαίο η Eurostat καταγράφει το χαμηλότερο κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ στην Ανατολική Μακεδονία και Θράκη και στην Ήπειρο (και οι δύο με 47% του μέσου όρου της ΕΕ) και στη Δυτική Ελλάδα (49%). Ακολουθούν η Θεσσαλία (52%), η Κεντρική Μακεδονία (53%), η Κρήτη (56%), τα Ιόνια Νησιά (57%), η Πελοπόννησος (59%), η Δυτική Μακεδονία (60%), το Νότιο Αιγαίο (67%), η Στερεά Ελλάδα (72%) και η Αττική (90%).

Στην ΕΕ το 2022, το πραγματικό ΑΕΠ αυξήθηκε σε 231 από τις 242 περιφέρειες, ενώ μειώσεις σημειώθηκαν σε 11 περιφέρειες.

Οι δύο περιφέρειες με τη μεγαλύτερη αύξηση του όγκου του ΑΕΠ ήταν στην Πορτογαλία: το Αλγκάρβε με +17% και η Região Autónoma da Madeira (+14,2%). Ακολουθούν η νότια περιφέρεια της Ιρλανδίας (+13,5%), το Illes Balears στην Ισπανία (+12,5%) και το Brabant Wallon στο Βέλγιο (+10,9%) .

Η πιο σημαντική πτώση καταγράφηκε σε δύο περιφέρειες της Βουλγαρίας: στο Yugoiztochen (-3,1%) και στο Σεβεροτζαπάντεν (-1,7%), ακολουθούμενη από την Κορσική στη Γαλλία και το Észak Magyarország στην Ουγγαρία (και οι δύο -1,2%).

Σημειώνεται ότι χαμηλά στην κατάταξη του κατά κεφαλήν ΑΕΠ είναι και δύο υπερπόντιες περιφέρειες της Γαλλίας: το Μαγιότ (30%) και η Γουιάνη (40%).

Agriculture in ancient Greece

Farmers in ancient Greece were primarily involved in agriculture, which was the foundation of the ancient Greek economy. The most widely cultivated crops were wheat, barley, olives, and grapes, suited to the Mediterranean climate. Other crops included fruits, vegetables, and pulses. Farming methods included crop rotation, irrigation, and animal husbandry. The size of farms varied, with some ranging from 5 to 20 hectares for the wealthy aristocracy. Agriculture was pivotal to the economy, providing food and raw materials for industries. Farmers also engaged in trade, both domestically and internationally, contributing to the prosperity of Greek city-states.
An ear of barley, symbol of wealth in the city of Metapontum in Magna Graecia (i.e. the Greek colonies of southern Italy), stamped stater, c. 530–510 BCE

Agriculture was the foundation of the Ancient Greek economy. Nearly 80% of the population was involved in this activity.
Figurine of a ploughman. 600 BC. -575 BC

Most Greek language agricultural texts are lost, except two botany texts by Theophrastus and a poem by Hesiod. The main texts are mostly from the Roman Agronomists: Cato the Elder's De agri cultura, Columella's De re rustica, Marcus Terentius Varro and Palladius. Varro mentions at least fifty Greek authors whose works are now lost. Attributed to Mago the Carthaginian, the agricultural treatise Rusticatio, originally written in Punic and later translated into Greek and Latin, is now lost. Scholars speculate whether this text may have been an early source for agricultural traditions in the Near East and Classical world. Ancient Greek agronomy was also influenced by Babylonian agriculture through the work of 4th century writer Vindonius Anatolius who influenced the 7th century writer Cassianus Bassus. Bassus' Eclogae de re rustica was excerpted in the Geoponika, a surviving Byzantine text created during the reign of Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus and later translated into Arabic, Syriac and Armenian.
Woman grinding grain, around 450 BC. BC, British Museum

Ancient Greek farmers employed several methods to sustain their agricultural activities, including:
Crop Rotation: To preserve soil fertility and avoid depleting nutrient reserves, farmers rotated their crops among various fields.
Irrigation: Water management played a crucial role in arid regions, particularly during summer months. Dams, canals, and aqueducts were constructed to channel water to crops.
Terracing: On sloping landscapes, terraces were built to provide level surfaces for planting crops.
Bronze billygoat found in the deme of Kephissia, 5th century BCE, Louvre

Animal Husbandry: Raising livestock was integral to the economy; animals supplied meat, milk, wool, and leather, while their waste enriched the soil.
Basic Tools: Handheld implements such as wooden or iron-tipped plows, hoes, and sickles were commonly used for tillage, weeding, and harvesting.
Transhumance (not explicitly detailed in search results): Seasonal movement of livestock between pastures, allowing animals to graze in different climatic zones throughout the year.
Animal husbandry, seen as a sign of power and wealth in the works of Homer, was in fact not well developed in ancient Greece. While the Mycenaean civilization was familiar with the rearing of cattle, the practice was restricted as a result of geographic expansion into less suitable terrain. Goats and sheep quickly became the most common livestock; less difficult to raise and providers of meat, wool, and milk (usually in the form of cheese). Pork and poultry (chicken and geese) were also raised. Oxen were rare and normally used as a work animal, though they were occasionally used as sacrificial animals (see Hecatomb). Donkeys, mules and their mixes were raised as pack or draught animals.

Horses were raised on the plains of Thessaly and Argolis; it was a luxury animal, signifying aristocracy. The Clouds, Ancient Greek comedy by Aristophanes, illustrates the equestrian snobbery of Athenian aristocrats: Pheidippides, the son of the hero is addicted to race-horses and so ruins his father Strepsiades.
It is likely that most farms practiced some limited animal husbandry; poultry or small animals grazing on waste land or fed kitchen scraps. Combined farm/livestock operations also existed, as well as those specializing in livestock. An inscription[4] also mentions a certain Eubolos of Elateia, in Phocis, the owner of 220 head of cattle and horses and at least 1000 sheep and goats. Flocks of sheep were herded between the valley in winter and the mountains in summer. Taxes existed for the transit or stopover of flocks in cities.
Plowman. Attic black-figure band cup. Around 530 BC. Louvre Museum

Despite these advancements, farming in ancient Greece remained challenging due to factors such as scarce arable land, variable weather patterns, and limited technological innovation compared to later periods. Nonetheless, agriculture was central to the economy and way of life in ancient Greece, providing food, raw materials, and employment opportunities for the majority of the population.
Ancient Greek farmers used a variety of tools for their agricultural activities, including:
Plows: Typically drawn by oxen or donkeys, these were used to prepare the soil for seeding.
Hoes and Rakes: Employed for weeding and soil breaking.
Sickles: Used for grain harvesting.
Pruning Hooks: Crucial in vineyards and olive groves.
Spades and Shovels (basic tools): Used for digging and moving earth, with the cutting part typically made of wood or with iron tips.
Pitchforks: Utilized for various tasks, such as handling hay.
These tools were essential for tasks such as crop cultivation, irrigation, and animal husbandry, forming the basis of ancient Greek agriculture.
An example of pithos
Pithos ( Greek: πίθος, plural: pithoi πίθοι) is the Greek name of a large storage container.

Ancient Greek farmers transported their crops using various methods. After harvesting, the crops were typically heaped in baskets and then taken to be threshed on a cleared patch of dry ground. Sometimes, a sled drawn by animals was used for this purpose. Barley collecting and wheat "winnowing" were typically done by hand with a small shovel and a basket. Additionally, most farmers would have traded their surplus produce for items they did not produce themselves, such as cheese, honey, fish, and shellfish. Some wealthier citizens with larger plots could make a profit from selling their extra crops at the market. During the fifth century B.C., Athens' port of Piraeus became the most important trading center in the Mediterranean, where Greek merchant ships sailed and exported goods such as wine, olives, and olive oil to various places.

They raised animals like sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens.Most farming was done by men and slaves; women helped with the harvest.Terracing was used to farm on Greece’s hilly landscapes.Drought was common, so irrigation systems were important.Farmers brought their goods to market in the city-state’s agora.Rituals and offerings to gods were a big part of farming life.
Harvesting olives. British Museum

Olive farming was integral to ancient Greece’s agriculture, economy, and lifestyle. This hardy tree was suitable for Greece’s dry, stony landscape. Its fruit and oil had many uses, including food preparation, lighting, soap making, and ceremonial practices.
Thasos island Greece


The trade of olive oil significantly boosted Greece’s economic prosperity. The olive branch evolved into a symbol of peace and wisdom, demonstrating its vital role in Greek society. The myth that the olive tree was bestowed by Athena underscored its spiritual and cultural value.

Wine production was a crucial part of ancient Greek farming, reflecting the Greek fondness for wine as part of their meals, social functions, and sacred ceremonies. Favorable climate conditions and hilly landscapes supported vine growth. Greek farmers meticulously tended to their vineyards, honing pruning and training strategies to increase grape yield.

The Greeks crafted diverse types of wines, many sweetened, spiced, or watered down. The wine was typically stored in amphorae and was a key domestic and export commodity, contributing significantly to Greece’s economy.

The reverence for Dionysus, the god of wine, emphasized the societal value of winemaking in ancient Greece.

Irrigation was essential to ancient Greek farming due to the area’s dry climate and sporadic rainfall. Water scarcity compelled Greeks to devise smart solutions for crop hydration. Simple but effective irrigation systems, like canals and trenches, were constructed to distribute water from rivers and wells to their lands.
The olive; a foundation of Greek agriculture – here in Karystos, Euboea

Terracing was also utilized on hilly terrains to minimize water runoff and soil erosion. In more arid regions, a “qanat” system was used, where tunnels were dug into hills to tap into groundwater. These hydration methods were integral to Greek agriculture, enabling the growth of crops like olives, grapes, and grains.

Farmers in ancient Greece used terracing to counter the country’s hilly landscape. This involved creating flat patches on steep slopes, enabling agriculture, and conserving water and soil. Stone walls typically supported these terraces, mitigating soil erosion.

The method made effective use of rainfall, slowing its movement for better soil absorption. Terracing allowed the successful growth of staple crops like olives and grapes, supporting Greece’s economy.

Grain cultivation, especially wheat, and barley, was critical in ancient Greek farming. These grains were dietary staples and adapted to the Mediterranean environment. Wheat was grown in winter, and barley could withstand less favorable soils and conditions.

Greek farmers used a two-field system to prevent soil exhaustion. Harvesting involved community participation. Wheat was used for bread, and barley for porridge or beer, highlighting their significance in Greek life.

The Agora, ancient Greece’s marketplace, was crucial for farmers to trade or sell their produce, including olives, grapes, grains, and livestock. Beyond being a market, the Agora was also a social and political hub. Here, farmers engaged with customers, set prices, and gauged demand trends.

The revenue from Agora transactions contributed to both the individual farmer’s income and the broader Greek city-state economy.

The farmers would take food to the marketplace and they would set up stores.

An average farmer would make around 2 drachmas each day when they sold their crops.

Animal husbandry was an essential facet of ancient Greek farming. Livestock, including sheep, goats, pigs, and chickens, offered resources such as meat, wool, and milk. Oxen and donkeys served as labor animals.

Greeks practiced transhumance, moving livestock between pastures according to seasons, optimizing grazing land use, and maintaining field fertility. Animal husbandry influenced the economy and rural landscape of ancient Greece.

Most of the animals on the farms were chickens, goats, pigs, sheep, and cows.

The animals would be used to help do the farming or they would be used to get milk, eggs, meat, wool, and leather and they were also used to fertilize the soil so that it would grow the crops better.

During the early time of Greek history, as shown in the Odyssey, Greek agriculture - and diet - was based on cereals (sitos, though usually translated as wheat, could in fact designate any type of cereal grain). Even if the ancients were aware of the better nutritional value of wheat, the growing of barley was less demanding and more productive. Attempts have been made to calculate Attica grain production in the period, but results have not been conclusive. It did not take long for demand to outpace production capabilities, as arable land was limited. The "tightness" of the land (στενοχωρία / stenokhôría) also explains Greek colonization, and the importance Anatolian cleruchies would have for the Athenian empire in controlling grain provision.

On the other hand, the Greek land was well suited for olive trees, which provided olive oil. The growing of olive trees dates back to early Greek history. Olive plantations are a long-term investment: it takes more than twenty years for the tree to provide fruit, and it only fruits every other year. Grapes also do well in the rocky soil, but demand a lot of care. Grapes have been grown since the Bronze Age.

These core crops were augmented by vegetable gardens (cabbage, onion, garlic, lentils, chick pea, beans) and herb gardens (sage, mint, thyme, savory, oregano). Orchards included those of fig, almond, apple, and pear trees. Oil-seed plants such as linseed, sesame, and poppy were also grown.

Some of the crops that were grown were wheat, barley, olives, and grapes. All of these crops were very important to the life of the Ancient Greeks.

In October, the crops that were grain would be planted, and then in April or May is when they would pick or harvest the grain.

Olives were not picked until February and grapes were not picked until sometime in September.

Barley
The main crop was barley. Barley was important for Ancient Greek farmers because it was an ingredient that was used for making different foods that were important for the Greeks.

Barley was used to make porridge or to make flour so that the Greeks could have bread to eat. Barley was also a big ingredient in wine.

Olives were used to make oil such as olive oil and the oil was used for both cooking and for burning lamps so that the Greeks could have light

Grapes were used to make wine, raisins and to be eaten. Since wine was such an important drink in Ancient Greek, grapes were needed.

The wine was watered down so that the Greeks could drink it when they wanted. Wine was never drunk without adding water because it was dangerous to do that.

Wood was exploited, primarily for domestic use; homes and wagons were made of wood as was the ard (aratron). The Greek forests located in the highlands were denuded by goats and charcoal production; it was not long before it had to be imported especially for ship production (see trireme).

Beekeeping provided honey, the only source of sugar known to the Greeks. It also was used in medicines and in the production of mead. The Ancient Greeks did not have access to sugarcane. The Hymettus region of Attica was known for the quality of honey produced there. Wax was also produced, used in the lost wax process to produce bronze statues as well as in medicines.

Farms in Ancient Greece were small and most of the time they only had about five acres of land.

The farms were important to farmers because they would grow their own food to feed their family and they would sell the crops to make a living.

Ancient Greek farmers used several tools for crop cultivation. Plows, typically drawn by oxen or donkeys, prepared the soil for seeding. They used hoes and rakes for weeding and soil breaking. Pruning hooks were crucial in vineyards and olive groves, while sickles were used for grain harvesting. Shovels and pickaxes helped create irrigation channels. These basic yet practical tools enabled efficient Greek farming.

The mountainous topography of ancient Greece presented a major challenge for farming due to the scarcity of flat, arable land. In areas where farming was possible, the soil was often rocky, requiring substantial effort to prepare for planting.

The dry climate, especially in summer, further complicated agriculture, necessitating efficient irrigation methods. With only around 20% of the land deemed fertile, farming was a demanding task. Additionally, the region’s susceptibility to natural disasters like earthquakes posed risks to agricultural stability.

Despite these hardships, the ancient Greeks adapted their farming techniques to the environment, establishing agriculture as a vital component of their economy and society.

The Greek god of farming is Demeter. She was one of the twelve Olympian gods and goddesses and was responsible for the fertility of the earth and the growth of crops. Demeter was often depicted holding a sheaf of wheat or a cornucopia, symbolizing the abundance of the harvest. She was also associated with the cycle of life and death, as the growth and harvest of crops mirrored the natural cycle of birth and death.

The main crops grown in Ancient Greece were wheat, barley, olives, grapes, and vegetables. Wheat and barley were the most important crops, as they were used to make bread and other foods. Olives were grown for their oil, which was used for cooking, lighting, and bathing. Grapes were grown for wine, which was an important part of Greek culture. Vegetables such as beans, lentils, and onions were also grown.

The main methods of farming used in Ancient Greece were crop rotation, irrigation, and animal husbandry. Crop rotation was used to prevent soil depletion. Irrigation was used to water crops in dry areas. Animal husbandry provided manure to fertilize the soil and meat and milk for food.

Ancient Greek farmers faced significant hurdles. The scarcity of farmable land, with only a fifth of Greece’s terrain suitable for agriculture, created high demand. The unpredictable Mediterranean climate, featuring hot, dry summers and wet, mild winters, made rainfall uncertain, posing a risk of crop failure.

They also had to contend with pests and diseases that could harm crops and livestock, leading to economic loss. Moreover, the lack of modern farming technology like tractors, irrigation systems, and pesticides hindered efficient farming and crop protection. Yet, despite these obstacles, agriculture was a vital sector in the ancient Greek economy, supplying food and raw materials for industries such as textiles and pottery.

How did farming contribute to the economy of Ancient Greece?
Agriculture was pivotal to the economy of Ancient Greece, with the vast majority of the population engaged in farming. These farmers were responsible for generating the majority of Greece’s food supply, while simultaneously supporting other industries by providing essential raw materials.

Their contributions included the production of cereals, fruits, vegetables, and livestock, along with raw materials like flax and wool for the textile industry, and grapes and olives for winemaking and oil production. Surplus goods were traded, not just domestically but internationally, facilitating income generation and bolstering the Greeks’ living standards.

Thus, agriculture underpinned Ancient Greece’s economy through the provision of food, raw materials, and commerce.

What were the social and cultural implications of farming in Ancient Greece?
Agriculture held significant sway in Ancient Greece, influencing their socio-cultural dynamics extensively. As the primary occupation for the majority, it effectively formed the bedrock of Greek societal norms, values, and beliefs.

The essence of the family was deeply rooted in Greek culture, a product of farming’s family-centered nature. Given the small size of most Greek farms, family participation was imperative, nurturing a robust sense of togetherness and community.

Farming, with its inherent demanding characteristics, reinforced the values of perseverance and diligence among the Greeks, honing a commendable work ethic. Moreover, the profound dependence on the land cultivated a deep-seated appreciation for nature.

The reliance on the weather for agricultural success drove Greeks towards spiritual pursuits, seeking divine blessings for favorable conditions and abundant harvests, thereby enriching their religious customs. Thus, farming wielded substantial influence over the socio-cultural landscape of Ancient Greece, shaping its norms, beliefs, and societal structure.


Hesiod's Works and Days, 8th century BCE and Xenophon's Economy of the 4th century BCE provide information about working off the land.

The olive harvest took place from late autumn to the beginning of winter, either by hand or by pole. They were placed in wicker baskets and left to ferment for a few weeks before being pressed. The screw press, although referred to as the Greek press by Pliny the Elder (XVIII, 37) was a late (2nd century BCE) Roman invention. Oil was preserved in terra cotta vases for use later. This was also the time for pruning of trees and vines and harvesting of legumes.

Spring was the rainy season; farmers took advantage of this to bring fallow ground back into production. They practised biennial crop rotation, alternating from year to year between fallow and cultivated.[citation needed] Attempts to introduce triennial crop rotation with legumes in the third year, ran into problems due to the poor Greek soil, lack of power, and absence of mechanization. The Greeks did not use animal manure, possibly due to the low number of cattle.[citation needed] The only soil additive was weeds ploughed back into the ground after fields came out of fallow.

In summer, irrigation was indispensable. In June, they harvested with sickles; the scythe was not used. Wheat was threshed with animal power; it was trampled by oxen, donkeys or mules, and the grain stored. Women and slaves ground it and made bread.

In early autumn, they collected deadfall and prepared supplies of firewood; while winters were mild on the coast they could be brutal in the highlands. Farmers also had to break the hard crust that had formed over the summer on grain fields. To do this required three passes since the ard was wooden (metal shares were rare) and only scratched the uppermost subsoil without inverting it. A hoe and mallet were also used to break clumps of earth. The fallow land for next year was sown by hand. This was the time of the grape harvest: the grapes were crushed by foot in large vats, then the wine was left to ferment in jugs. After that process, people could drink the ambrosial wine and enjoy it.

In the nearly four centuries that passed between Hesiod and Xenophon, no improvements can be found in agriculture. Tools remained mediocre and there were no inventions to lighten the work of either man or animal. It was not until the rise of Romans that the water mill came into wide use, employing hydraulic power to augment muscle power. It took until the Middle Ages for true plows which turned the earth to be widely adopted. Neither irrigation, nor soil improvements, nor animal husbandry saw notable advances. Only the very richest of land, such as that of Messinia was capable of supporting two crops per year.

Agricultural property
With the exception of Athens, and a few areas where aerial surveys have permitted analysis of historical land distribution, agricultural property allocation is not well known. Before the 5th century BCE, it is certain that the land belonged to great landowners, such as the Attican Eupatrides. Nevertheless, land use varied regionally; in Attica domains were divided among smaller plots, whereas in Thessaly they had single tenants.

From the 8th century BCE, tensions grew between the great landowners and the peasants, who were finding it more and more difficult to survive. This can probably be explained by population growth brought on by reduced infant mortality, and aggravated by the practice of equally subdividing land amongst several inheritors each generation (attested to by both Homer and Hesiod). In Athens, the crisis was resolved with the arrival of Solon in 594 BCE. He forbade slavery for debt and introduced other measures intended to help the peasants. In the 5th century BCE, the practice of liturgy (λειτουργία / leitourgia - literally, "public work") placed the responsibility for provision of public services heavily on the shoulders of the rich, and led to a reduction in large scale land ownership. It is estimated that most citizens of hoplite rank owned around 5 hectares of land. In Sparta, the reforms of Lycurgus led to a drastic redistribution of land, with 10 to 18 hectare lots (kleroi) distributed to each citizen. Elsewhere, tyrants undertook redistributions of land seized from wealthy political enemies.

From the 4th century BCE onwards property starts to become concentrated among few land owners, including in Sparta where according to Aristotle, the land has passed into the hands of a few (Politics, II, 1270a).[6] Nevertheless, the aristocratic estates in Greece never achieved the scope of the great Roman latifundia; during the classical period, the wealthy Alcibiades possessed only 28 hectares (Plato, 1 Alcibiades, 123c). In all cases, land remains intimately associated with the concept of wealth. The father of Demosthenes possessed 14 talents and for land owned only a home, but he was the exception. When the banker Pasion made his fortune, he hurried to buy land.

Some Greek land was public and/or sacred. Each city possessed such land and it is estimated that in Athens during the classical period these lands represented a tenth of cultivable land. This was an administrative division and the property of the city itself (for example in Attica, it was a deme) or a temple. These lands were leased to individuals.

Some of the most popular vegetables in Ancient Greece were cucumbers, onions, and lettuce.Farms were usually given to the son after the father passed away.Farming was an important thing for Ancient Greek trading and farmers would trade crops to other lands.Farmers would dig, and use iron-tipped plows, hoes, and sickles to harvest their crops.Most farmers had horses and donkeys, but these were used for transportation more than farming.Some of the foods that were made out of the corps were cereal, wine, honey, cheese, and more.

Ολοκληρώθηκε το μεγάλο συλλαλητήριο των αγροτών στο Σύνταγμα, Αθήνα, Ελλάδα

Αγρότες από όλη την Ελλάδα οδήγησαν τα τρακτέρ τους στην Αθήνα την Τρίτη, εντείνοντας τις διαδηλώσεις εβδομάδων για την αύξηση του κόστους, τον ξένο ανταγωνισμό και τις καταστροφικές πλημμύρες.
 
«Παλεύουμε για τα δικαιώματά μας. Θέλουμε η κυβέρνηση να μας δώσει λύσεις στα προβλήματά μας, γιατί δεν παλεύουμε μόνο για εμάς, για τη δική μας επιβίωση, παλεύουμε για όλους», είπε ο αγρότης και διαδηλωτής Σπύρος Χατζής.

Χιλιάδες Έλληνες αγρότες συμμετείχαν σε συγκέντρωση στην Πλατεία Συντάγματος της Αθήνας, φέρνοντας τα τρακτέρ τους για να εκφράσουν τις ανησυχίες τους για το αυξανόμενο κόστος. Η εκδήλωση ξεκίνησε την Τρίτη και ολοκληρώθηκε το πρωί της Τετάρτης όταν τα αγροτικά τρακτέρ αναχώρησαν από την Αθήνα.

Τα σωματεία των Ελλήνων αγροτών βρίσκονται σε διαπραγματεύσεις με τη συντηρητική κυβέρνηση του πρωθυπουργού Κυριάκου Μητσοτάκη εδώ και εβδομάδες, αλλά λένε ότι τα μέτρα που έχουν ανακοινωθεί μέχρι στιγμής δεν φτάνουν αρκετά για να ικανοποιήσουν τις ανησυχίες τους. Η συγκέντρωση απηχεί παράπονα στη Γαλλία, το Βέλγιο, την Ολλανδία, την Πολωνία και την Ιταλία, όπου αγρότες έχουν διοργανώσει παρόμοιες διαδηλώσεις.

Οι Έλληνες αγρότες πραγματοποίησαν συλλαλητήριο στην Αθήνα για διάφορους λόγους που σχετίζονται με το αυξανόμενο κόστος και τις προκλήσεις που αντιμετωπίζει ο αγροτικός τομέας. Μερικά συγκεκριμένα ζητήματα περιελάμβαναν:
Υψηλό κόστος παραγωγής
Δαπάνες ενέργειας
Διαγωνισμός από το εξωτερικό
Ζημιές που προκαλούνται από φυσικές καταστροφές όπως πλημμύρες
φορολογικές πολιτικές
Καθυστερημένες πληρωμές για χαμένα προϊόντα
Οι αγρότες ζήτησαν οικονομική βοήθεια από την κυβέρνηση, επιδιώκοντας μέτρα πέρα από αυτά που έχουν ήδη προταθεί, όπως εκπτώσεις στους λογαριασμούς ηλεκτρικού ρεύματος και παράταση για ένα χρόνο της φορολογικής έκπτωσης για τα γεωργικά προϊόντα.
Παρά τον ισχυρισμό της κυβέρνησης ότι δεν μπορούσε να παράσχει πρόσθετες παραχωρήσεις χωρίς να υπερβεί τα δημοσιονομικά της όρια, οι αγρότες παρέμειναν επίμονοι στην πίεση για περισσότερη στήριξη.

Δεν αναφέρθηκαν θύματα μεταξύ των Ελλήνων αγροτών κατά τις διαδηλώσεις στην Αθήνα. Οι συγκεντρώσεις ήταν ειρηνικές, με τους αγρότες να παρκάρουν τα τρακτέρ τους μπροστά στο Κοινοβούλιο και να επιδίδονται σε συμβολικές ενέργειες και όχι σε βίαιες αντιπαραθέσεις με τις αρχές.

Η διαμαρτυρία των αγροτών στην Αθήνα είχε πολλές επιπτώσεις στην πόλη. Κλείσιμο μεγάλων δρόμων και διακοπή της δημόσιας συγκοινωνίας: Η ελληνική αστυνομία προειδοποίησε ότι η συγκέντρωση των αγροτών στην Αθήνα θα έκλεινε μεγάλο μέρος της πόλης στην κυκλοφορία και θα παρεμπόδιζε τη δημόσια συγκοινωνία. Εκτροπές κυκλοφορίας: Οι αυτοκινητιστές ειδοποιήθηκαν να αποφεύγουν ορισμένες περιοχές γύρω από την πλατεία Συντάγματος κατά τη διάρκεια της διαδήλωσης.
Συμβολική δράση: Στη διαμαρτυρία συμμετείχαν χιλιάδες αγρότες που οδηγούσαν τα τρακτέρ τους στους δρόμους της Αθήνας, κορνάροντας για να τραβήξουν την προσοχή στις αιτίες τους.
Οικονομικές επιπτώσεις: Ενώ οι άμεσες οικονομικές συνέπειες της διαμαρτυρίας ήταν προσωρινές, τα παράπονα των αγροτών αντικατοπτρίζουν ευρύτερες ανησυχίες που επηρεάζουν την ελληνική οικονομία και τους ευρωπαϊκούς τομείς της γεωργίας.
Συνολικά, η διαμαρτυρία των αγροτών στην Αθήνα δημιούργησε μια ορατή και ακουστή παρουσία στην πόλη, εφιστώντας την προσοχή στα αιτήματά τους και ενδεχομένως επηρεάζοντας τις αποφάσεις πολιτικής. Ωστόσο, οι άμεσες επιπτώσεις στην καθημερινή ζωή στην Αθήνα περιορίστηκαν στη διάρκεια της ίδιας της διαμαρτυρίας.

Πριν από το συλλαλητήριο στην Αθήνα, Έλληνες αγρότες είχαν πραγματοποιήσει διαμαρτυρίες και οδοφράγματα για να εκφράσουν τη δυσαρέσκειά τους. Απέρριψαν τις παραχωρήσεις που πρότεινε η κυβέρνηση και αποφάσισαν να κλιμακώσουν τις διαδηλώσεις τους οδηγώντας τα τρακτέρ τους στην πρωτεύουσα για μια συγκέντρωση. Οι αγρότες διαμαρτύρονταν για το υψηλό κόστος παραγωγής, τα ενεργειακά έξοδα, τον ανταγωνισμό από το εξωτερικό, τις ζημιές που προκλήθηκαν από φυσικές καταστροφές, τις φορολογικές πολιτικές και τις καθυστερημένες πληρωμές για τα χαμένα προϊόντα. Ζήτησαν οικονομική βοήθεια και πρόσθετα μέτρα από την κυβέρνηση για την αντιμετώπιση αυτών των ζητημάτων.

Η ελληνική αστυνομία ανέμενε ότι η διαμαρτυρία των αγροτών στην Αθήνα θα προκαλούσε σημαντική αναστάτωση, προειδοποιώντας ότι η συγκέντρωση θα οδηγούσε στο κλείσιμο μεγάλου μέρους της πόλης στην κυκλοφορία και θα διαταράξει τη δημόσια συγκοινωνία. Για να διαχειριστεί την κατάσταση, η αστυνομία εφάρμοσε διάφορα κυκλοφοριακά μέτρα σε όλη την πόλη, συμπεριλαμβανομένου του κλεισίματος ορισμένων δρόμων και συμβουλεύοντας το κοινό να αποφεύγει αυτές τις περιοχές μέχρι να ολοκληρωθούν οι διαδηλώσεις. Επιπλέον, η αστυνομία συνεργάστηκε στενά με τους διοργανωτές για να συντονίσει τη διαμαρτυρία και να ελαχιστοποιήσει πιθανές συγκρούσεις.

Δεν είναι ξεκάθαρο τι θα κάνουν οι αγρότες μετά το συλλαλητήριο στην Αθήνα. Η ελληνική κυβέρνηση έχει ήδη προσφέρει εκπτώσεις στους λογαριασμούς ρεύματος και παράταση ενός έτους της φορολογικής έκπτωσης για το αγροτικό ντίζελ μέχρι το τέλος του 2024, αλλά τα συνδικάτα αγροτών δήλωσαν ότι τα μέτρα που έχουν ανακοινωθεί μέχρι στιγμής δεν φτάνουν αρκετά για να ανταποκριθούν ανησυχίες. Παρά τον ισχυρισμό της κυβέρνησης ότι δεν έχει δημοσιονομικά περιθώρια για περαιτέρω παραχωρήσεις φέτος, οι αγρότες παραμένουν αποφασισμένοι να πιέσουν για περισσότερη στήριξη. Είναι πιθανό οι αγρότες να συνεχίσουν να πραγματοποιούν διαμαρτυρίες και να συμμετέχουν σε διαπραγματεύσεις με την κυβέρνηση για να επιτύχουν τα αιτήματά τους


The great rally of the farmers in Syntagma, Athens, Greece

Farmers from across Greece drove their tractors to Athens on Tuesday, stepping up weeks of protests over rising costs, foreign competition and catastrophic flooding.
 
"We are fighting for our justified rights. We want the government to give us solutions to our problems, because we aren’t just fighting for us, for our own survival, we are fighting for everyone," farmer and protester Spyros Hatzis said.

Thousands of Greek farmers participated in a rally in Athens' Syntagma Square, bringing their tractors to express their concerns regarding rising costs. The event began on Tuesday and concluded on Wednesday morning when the farmer tractors departed from Athens, Greece

Greek farmers' unions have been in negotiations with Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis' conservative government for weeks, but say the measures announced so far don't go far enough to meet their concerns. The rally echoes grievances in France, Belgium, the Netherlands, Poland and Italy, where farmers have staged similar demonstrations.

Greek farmers held a rally in Athens due to several reasons related to increasing costs and challenges faced within the agriculture sector. Some specific issues included:
High production costs
Energy expenses
Competition from abroad
Damage caused by natural disasters like flooding
Taxation policies
Delayed payments for lost produce
The farmers demanded financial assistance from the government, seeking measures beyond those already proposed, such as discounts on electricity bills and a one-year extension of a tax rebate for agricultural diese. 
Despite the government's assertion that it could not provide additional concessions without exceeding its budgetary limits, the farmers remained persistent in pushing for more support.

There were no reported casualties among the Greek farmers during the protests in Athens. The rallies were peaceful, with farmers parking their tractors in front of Parliament and engaging in symbolic actions rather than violent confrontations with authorities.

The farmers' protest in Athens led to several impacts on the city. Closure of major roads and disruption of public transport: Greek police warned that the farmers' Athens rally would close much of the city to traffic and disrupt public transport.Traffic diversions: Motorists were advised to avoid certain areas around Syntagma Square during the protest.
Symbolic action: The protest involved thousands of farmers driving their tractors through the streets of Athens, honking their horns to draw attention to their causes.
Economic implications: While the direct economic consequences of the protest were temporary, the farmers' grievances reflect wider concerns affecting the Greek economy and European agriculture sectors.
Overall, the farmers' protest in Athens created a visible and audible presence in the city, drawing attention to their demands and potentially influencing policy decisions. However, the immediate effects on daily life in Athens were limited to the duration of the protest itself..

Before the rally in Athens, Greek farmers had been conducting protests and roadblocks to express their discontent. They rejected government-proposed concessions and decided to escalate their demonstrations by driving their tractors to the capital for a rally. The farmers were protesting high production costs, energy expenses, competition from abroad, damage caused by natural disasters, taxation policies, and delayed payments for lost produce. They demanded financial assistance and additional measures from the government to address these issues.

Greek police anticipated that the farmers' protest in Athens would cause significant disruption, warning that the rally would lead to the closure of much of the city to traffic and disrupt public transport. To manage the situation, police implemented various traffic measures throughout the city, including closing certain streets and advising the public to avoid those areas until the protests concluded. Additionally, the police worked closely with the organizers to coordinate the protest and minimize potential conflicts.

It is unclear what the farmers will do next after the rally in Athens. The Greek government has already offered discounts on power bills and a one-year extension of a tax rebate for agricultural diesel to the end of 2024, but the farmers' unions have stated that the measures announced so far do not go far enough to meet their concerns. Despite the government's assertion that it has no fiscal room for further concessions this year, the farmers remain determined to push for more support. It is possible that the farmers may continue to hold protests and engage in negotiations with the government to achieve their demands.




Eos, Goddess of the Dawn

 Ἦμος δ᾽ ἠριγένεια φάνη ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ἠώς,
νῆσον θαυμάζοντες ἐδινεόμεσθα κατ᾽ αὐτήν.
ὦρσαν δὲ νύμφαι, κοῦραι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο,
αἶγας ὀρεσκῴους, ἵνα δειπνήσειαν ἑταῖροι.
- ΟΜΗΡΟΣ Ὀδύσσεια (9.152-9.215)
Εos (Εως), the Aurora of the Latins, in Greek Mythology was the deity-personification of the dawn, daughter of the Titan Hyperion and the Titaness Theia, therefore, sister of the Sun - whom she precedes each day on his celestial journey - and the Moon.

According to another tradition, she was the daughter of Euryphaessa (characteristic epithet of Eos) or Helios (born father from brother) and Euphrosyne (another name for Night).
Πήλινο αγγείο (Ηώς)

In Greek literature, Eos is presented as a daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia, the sister of the sun god Helios and the moon goddess Selene. In rarer traditions, she is the daughter of the Titan Pallas. Each day she drives her two-horse chariot, heralding the breaking of the new day and her brother's arrival. Thus, her most common epithet of the goddess in the Homeric epics is Rhododactylos, or "rosy-fingered", a reference to the sky's colours at dawn, and Erigeneia, "early-born". Although primarily associated with the dawn and early morning, sometimes Eos would accompany Helios for the entire duration of his journey, and thus she is even seen during dusk.

Eos fell in love with mortal men several times, and would abduct them in similar manner to how male gods did mortal women. Her most notable mortal lover is the Trojan prince Tithonus, for whom she ensured the gift of immortality, but not eternal youth, leading to him aging without dying for an eternity. In another story, she carried off the Athenian Cephalus against his will, but eventually let him go for he ardently wished to be returned to his wife, though not before she denigrated her to him, leading to the couple parting ways. Several other lovers and romances with both mortal men and gods were attributed to the goddess by various poets throughout the centuries.

Eos figures in many works of ancient literature and poetry, but despite her Proto-Indo-European origins, there is little evidence of Eos having received any cult or being the centre of worship during classical times.


Etymology

Ηώς < μονοτονική γραφή: αρχαία ελληνική Ἠώς< ἠώς (αυγή)
(ελληνική μυθολογία, θεωνύμιο) θεότητα προσωποποίηση της αυγής, κόρη του Τιτάνα Υπερίωνα και της Τιτανίδας Θείας
↪ Στον Όμηρο, η Ηώς είναι πάντα η «ῥοδοδάκτυλος Ἠώς».

The Proto-Greek form of Ἠώς / Ēṓs has been reconstructed as *ἀυhώς / auhṓs. It is cognate to the Vedic goddess Ushas, Lithuanian goddess Aušrinė, and Roman goddess Aurora (Old Latin Ausosa), all three of whom are also goddesses of the dawn.[1] Beekes notes that the Proto-Greek form *ἇϝος (hãwos) is identical with the Sanskrit relative yāvat, meaning 'as long as'. Meissner (2006) suggested an áwwɔ̄s > /aṷwɔ̄s/ > αὔως lengthening for Aeolic and */aṷwɔ̄s/ > *āwɔ̄s > *ǣwɔ̄s > /ǣɔ̄s/ for Attic-Ionic Greek.

In Mycenaean Greek her name is also attested in the form 𐀀𐀺𐀂𐀍 in Linear B, a-wo-i-jo (Āw(ʰ)oʰios; Ἀϝohιος), found in a tablet from Pylos;[b] it has been interpreted as a shepherd's personal name related to "dawn", or dative form Āwōiōi.

Heinrich Wilhelm Stoll offered a different (now rejected) etymology for ἠὼς, linking it to the verb αὔω, meaning "to blow", "to breathe."

Lycophron calls her by an archaic name, Tito, meaning "day" and perhaps etymologically linked to "Titan". Karl Kerenyi observes that Tito shares a linguistic origin with Eos's lover Tithonus, which belonged to an older, pre-Greek language

Origins
Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess
All four of the aforementioned goddesses sharing a linguistic connection with Eos are considered derivatives of the Proto-Indo-European stem *h₂ewsṓs (later *Ausṓs), "dawn". The root also gave rise to Proto-Germanic *Austrō, Old High German *Ōstara and Old English Ēostre / Ēastre. These and other cognates led to the reconstruction of a Proto-Indo-European dawn goddess, *h₂éwsōs.

*H₂éwsōs or *Haéusōs (PIE: lit. 'the dawn') is the reconstructed Proto-Indo-European name of the dawn goddess in the Proto-Indo-European mythology.

*H₂éwsōs is believed to have been one of the most important deities worshipped by Proto-Indo-European speakers due to the consistency of her characterization in subsequent traditions as well as the importance of the goddess Uṣas in the Rigveda.

Her attributes have not only been mixed with those of solar goddesses in some later traditions, most notably the Baltic sun-deity Saulė, but have subsequently expanded and influenced female deities in other mythologies.

The reconstructed Proto-Indo-European name of the dawn, *h₂éwsōs, derives the verbal root *h₂(e)wes- ('to shine, glow red; a flame') extended by the suffix -ós-. The same root also underlies the word for 'gold', *h₂ews-om (lit. 'glow'), inherited in Latin aurum, Old Prussian ausis, and Lithuanian áuksas.

The word for the dawn as a meteorological event has also been preserved in Balto-Slavic *auṣ(t)ro (cf. Lith. aušrà 'dawn, morning light', PSlav. *ȕtro 'morning, dawn', OCS za ustra 'in the morning'), in Sanskrit uṣar ('dawn'), or in Ancient Greek αὔριον ('tomorrow').

A derivative adverb, *h₂ews-teros, meaning 'east' (lit. 'toward the dawn'), is reflected in Latvian àustrums ('east'), Avestan ušatara ('east'), Italic *aus-tero- (cf. Latin auster 'south wind, south'), Old Church Slavonic ustrŭ ('summer'), and Germanic *austeraz (cf. Old Norse austr, English east, MHG oster). The same root seems to be preserved in the Baltic names for the northeast wind: Lith. aūštrinis and Latv. austrenis, austrinis, austrinš.[ Also related are the Old Norse Austri, described in the Gylfaginning as one of four dwarves that guard the four cardinal points (with him representing the east), and Austrvegr ('The Eastern Way'), attested in medieval Germanic literature

In the Greek pantheon, Eos, Helios and Zeus are the three gods that are of impeccable Indo-European lineage in both etymology and status, although the former two were sidelined in the pantheon by non-PIE newcomers. A common epithet associated with this dawn goddess is *Diwós Dhuǵh2tḗr, the 'Daughter of Dyēus', the sky god. In Homeric tradition however, Eos is never stated to be the daughter of Zeus (Διὸς θυγάτηρ, Diòs thugátēr), as she is instead the daughter of the Titan Hyperion, who plays little role in mythology or religion. Rather, a commonly occurring epithet of hers is δῖα, dîa, meaning "divine", from earlier *díw-ya, which would have translated into "belonging to Zeus" or "heavenly".

Eos's characterization as a lovestruck, sexual being who took many lovers is directly inherited from her PIE precursor. A common and widespread theme among Hausos's descendants is their reluctance to bring the light of the new day. Eos (and Aurora) is sometimes seen as unwilling to leave her bed in the morning, while Uṣas is punished by Indra for attempting to forestall the day, and the Latvian Auseklis was said to be locked up in a golden chamber so she could not always rise in the morning.

This probably of Proto-Indo-European origin goddess of the dawn was often conflated and equated with Hemera, the goddess of the day and daylight. Eos might have also played a role in Proto-Indo-European poetry.

Connection to Aphrodite
Eos also shares some characteristics with the love goddess Aphrodite connoting perhaps a semi-shared origin or influence of Eos/*Haéusōs on Aphrodite, who otherwise has a Near Eastern origin; both goddesses were known for their erotic beauty and aggressive sexuality, both had relationships with mortal lovers and both were associated with the colors red, white, and gold. Michael Janda etymologizes Aphrodite's name as an epithet of Eos meaning "she who rises from the foam [of the ocean]" and points to Hesiod's Theogony account of Aphrodite's birth as an archaic reflex of Indo-European myth. On the other hand however, it is generally accepted that Aphrodite's name etymology is Semitic in origin, and its exact meaning and derivation cannot be determined. Evidence is also provided by an Italic red-figure krater in which Aphrodite is shown holding a mirror beneath a solar disc while the Theban hero Cadmus slays the dragon, with a female figure nearly identical to Aphrodite being depicted on another krater labelled "ΑΩΣ", or Aṓs, the dawn; this shows that although Aphrodite is assimilated to Astarte/Inanna, in Greek artistic tradition she is sometimes presented in a similar matter to Eos.

Aphrodite, like Eos, is predator and not prey, as no tales of men assaulting Aphrodite exist, but there are many where she abducts mortal men reversing the traditional theme of gods and men pursuing maidens, in the same fashion as Eos. Not only does Aphrodite abduct or seduce mortal men as Eos does, but even cites Eos' own adventures with Tithonus when she seduces Anchises. The two goddesses are presented as both maleficent and beneficent abductors, as they confer both death (maleficent) and preservation (beneficent) to their mortal lovers. The two goddesses exist almost side by side in the myth of Phaethon of Syria, with Eos as his mother and Aphrodite as his lover and abductor. Moreover, another telling point is how the name “Aoos” is recorded as both a name for Adonis, Aphrodite’s East-originating lover, and a son of Eos by Cephalus (like Phaethon) who became king of Cyprus, an island that was regarded as Aphrodite’s birthplace. This suggest a mixture of Mycenaean and Phoenician religions on the island; it is possible that Aoos was originally a generic name used for Eos’ son or lover, which was then attached to Aphrodite in the form of a consort of the same name as she developed from Eos.

Description
Eos was almost always described with rosy fingers or rosy forearms as she opened the gates of heaven for the Sun to rise. In Homer, her saffron-colored robe is embroidered or woven with flowers; while the singer in the Homeric Hymn to Helios calls her ῥοδόπηχυν (ACC), "rosy-armed" as does Sappho,[36] who also describes her as having golden arms and golden sandals; rosy-fingered and with golden arms, she is pictured on Attic vases as a beautiful woman, crowned with a tiara or diadem and with the large white-feathered wings of a bird. Mesomedes of Crete used χιονοβλέφαρος for her, "she who has snow-white eyelids", while Ovid described her as "golden". The delicate and fragile beauty of her appearance seems to be in total contrast with the carnal nature that was often attributed to her in myth and literature.

Family
Parents
According to Greek cosmogony, Eos is the daughter of the Titans Hyperion and Theia: Hyperion, a bringer of light, the One Above, Who Travels High Above the Earth and Theia, The Divine, also called Euryphaessa, "wide-shining" and Aethra, "bright sky". Eos is the sister of Helios, the god of the sun, and Selene, the goddess of the moon, "who shine upon all that are on earth and upon the deathless gods who live in the wide heaven". Out of the four authors that give her and her siblings a birth order, two make her the oldest child, the other two the youngest. In some accounts, Eos's father was called Pallas, who is also confirmed to the be father of Eos's sister Selene in some rare traditions. Even though the two goddesses are still connected as sisters in the traditions going with lineage from Pallas, their brother Helios is never included with them in those versions, being consistently the son of Hyperion. Mesomedes made her the daughter of Helios, who is usually her brother, by an unnamed mother. Some authors made her the child of Nyx, the personification of the night, who is the mother of Hemera in the Theogony.

Offspring
Eos married the Titan Astraeus ("of the stars") and became the mother of the Anemoi ("winds") namely Zephyrus, Boreas, Notus and Eurus; of the Morning Star, Eosphoros (Venus); of the stars; and of the virgin goddess of justice, Astraea ("starry one"). Her other notable offspring were Memnon and Emathion by the Trojan prince, Tithonus. Sometimes, Hesperus, Phaethon and Tithonus (different from her lover), were said to be the children of Eos by Prince Cephalus of Athens.

Η πανέμορφη Ηώς, πρόδρομος του Ηλίου, αρματοδρομούσα σκορπώντας άνθη και καταδιώκουσα το σκότος.

Interpretation of myths
As is obvious to any well-intentioned researcher of Greek Mythology, all Greek myths are allegorical and popularized reference to early observations. And in this case, the myths of Eos confirm it. Her name, as "original goddess" (born in the morning), has the same etymology as the Latin Aurora, descendant of Hyperion, (= the one who walks over the Earth) and "Euryphaessa" (= the one who diffused her radiance far away), or of "Theia" (= the current in the sky) and her affinities with the Sun, the Moon, Phaethon, the ancient Lucifer - who as a winged "demon" precedes the chariot of Helios - as well as her epithets , confess its identification with the anthropomorphic, ideal conception of the dawn. "Rhodactylus" and "chrysodactylus" are the first rays of the Sun, golden throne, golden, crimson, the first colors of the sky just before its sunrise. But the "erotolept" of her myths, combined with the brief enjoyment of everything beautiful that she loved, does not escape reality. The heroes and hunters who flee from the "wild dawns", as we would say today, in the myths appear to be abducted by the goddess and fall in love with her! While she continues to this day to scatter around her the observed morning dew and will continue to do so.

Love partners
Distinguished among the goddesses by her attractive beauty and the seductive graces she had, Eos attracted the loving gaze of the god Ares with whom she slept. When the goddess Aphrodite found out about this, she "cursed" her so that her life would be full of love affairs without finding complete satisfaction. As it happened. Now, the legendary traditions about the love affairs of Eos were innumerable.

First in the list of her husbands is Astraeus, (personification of the starry sky), with whom she obtained the numerous stars, Lucifer (Augerinus) and the four main winds, Argestes, North, Zephyrus and South (personifications of the main directions), as and one daughter Diki.

Second, was Tithonus, a handsome youth, son of Laomedon, who was abducted by Eos to her palaces, on the shores of the Ocean (determining the horizon), after he had obtained from Zeus his immortality, forgetting, however, to ask for eternal his youth. And, though he fed Tithonus with ambrosia and clothed him in brilliant garments the hairs of his head began to turn white, wrinkles to furrow his face so that he became unrecognizable retaining only his sweet voice. Then, according to one tradition, Eos asked Zeus and turned him into a tettiga (cicada) and according to another, Eos kidnapped him to Ethiopia where she also had two sons, Imathion, (with most traditions in Thessaly and Macedonia ), and the much-loved Memnon, the celebrated hero of ancient myths and the main hero of "Aethiopida", the Arctic epic.

Eos's third romantic partner was the handsome hunter Orion whom she kidnapped from Tanagra and whom, however, she lost very quickly. Transmitting her incurable love passion to him, she was struck by the arrows of the goddess Artemis, on the island of Ortygia, either because he dared to challenge her to a discus match, or out of the goddess's ignorance, while he was swimming, at the instigation of Apollo (because he carried the love his bond with his sister), or for another reason. According to another version, Eos fell in love with the blinded Orion when he reached the limits of the Ocean (ideal perception of the horizon - today's expression "at the ends of the world") in search of healing, begging her brother to restore his sight with his rays.

After the murder of Orion and his transformation by the gods into the constellation of the same name, followed the Attic hero Cephalus, the son of the god Hermes and Hersis, the husband of Procris, of whom he inadvertently became her killer, and from whom he had the Phaethon. After he too was condemned by the gods, Eos sought a love bond from Melambodides Cleitos, the son of Mantios and a relative of Amphiaraus, but many others followed him as well.

Role in wars
Gigantomachy
Eos played a small role in the battle of the earthborn Giants against the gods, known as the Gigantomachy, who rose in rebellion. When their mother, the earth goddess Gaia learned of a prophecy that the giants would perish at the hand of a mortal, Gaia sought to find a herb that would protect them from all harm; thus Zeus ordered Eos, as well as her siblings Selene (Moon) and Helios (Sun) not to shine so that she would not be able to seek for it, and harvested all of the plant for himself, denying Gaia the chance to make the Giants indestructible. Moreover, Eos is seen fighting against the Giants in the south frieze of the Pergamon Altar, which depicts the Gigantomachy, where she rides hither on either a horse or a mule[98] right ahead of Helios, swinging herself on the back of her mount while a Giant already lies on the ground underneath her; a robe wound around her hips serves as her saddle-cloth.[99] She is joined in fight against the Giants by her siblings, her mother Theia, and possibly, conjectured due to the disembodied wing to the right of Eos's shoulder, the goddess Hemera.

Trojan War
According to Hesiod, by her lover Tithonus, Eos had two sons, Memnon and Emathion. Memnon, king of Aethiopia, joined the Trojans in the Trojan War and fought against Achilles in battle. Much like Thetis, the mother of Achilles, did before her, Eos asked the smithing god Hephaestus with tears in her eyes to forge an armor for Memnon, and he, moved, did as told. Pausanias mentions images of Thetis and Eos both begging Zeus on behalf of their sons. In the end, it was Achilles who triumphed and slew Memnon in battle. Mourning greatly over the death of her son, Eos made the light of her brother, Helios the god of the sun, to fade, and begged Nyx, the goddess of the night, to come out earlier, so she could be able to freely steal her son's body undetected by the armies. After his death, Eos, perhaps with the help of Hypnos (Sleep) and Thanatos (Death), transported Memnon's dead body back to Aethiopia; she also asked Zeus to make her son immortal, and he granted her wish. Eos' role in the Trojan War saga mirrors that of Thetis herself; both are goddesses married to aging old men, both see their mortal sons die on the battlefield, and both arrange an afterlife/immortality of sorts for said sons.

The work of Eos
This deity, according to Greek Mythology, was a daily precursor of the Sun to whom she opened the "Gate of the East" every dawn, with her rosy hands. Then she was crowned with flowers supplied by birds, and with a many-folded veil she mounted her fourfold chariot throwing flowers and with hydrias she spread rhododendron on the Earth ("morning dew"), the drops of which glittered like diamonds in the first rays of the Sun, which followed her .

This was the daily work of Heus, that beautiful deity whom ancient Greek poets praised and with admiration described her rosy fingers, her snow-white neck, her wondrous eyes, her glittering veil (image of a twilight), accompanying her name with a number of exclamatory adjectives or exclamations, such as faennan, voopin, euplocamon, crocopeplon, leukopteron, rhodopechyn (Aeolian dialect: brodopachyn), rhodostefi, rhodosphyron, rhododactylon, chrysinion, chrysothronon, chrysopedilon, etc.