Πέμπτη 14 Μαρτίου 2024

Saint Theognostos the Greek, March 14

Saint Theognostic the Greek or Theognostic of Kiev in Russian: Феогност, (died on March 11, 1353) was a bishop of the Ecumenical Patriarchate of Constantinople, who served as Metropolitan of Kiev and all Russia., Greek by origin, successor of Saint Metropolitan Peter. Writer of teachings and letters. His tenure as metropolitan coincided with the reigns of Ivan Kalita and Simeon the Proud.
Metropolitan Theognostis - wooden figure

No information has survived about his birth, early life and development. Believed to be from Istanbul. At the end of his life, when the need arose to nominate a successor, Metropolitan Theognostos insisted that this position could only be held by someone who had undergone a long monastic education.

Metropolitan Theognostos is the successor of Metropolitan Petros. Having received initiation in Constantinople in 1328 by Patriarch Isaiah, Theognostos settled in Moscow. In the first years of the administration of the Theognostos metropolis, Ivan Kalita led the active construction of temples in the Moscow Kremlin. This was due to the legacy of Metropolitan Peter.

In the first years of Theognostos' metropolitan tenure, white stone churches were consecrated, one of which became the monastery's cathedral:

On May 10 (18) 1330, the Cathedral of the Savior was founded in Bor[2], around which the Monastery of the Transfiguration was organized,
in 1329 the "bell-like" church of Agios Ioannis Climakos was built and later consecrated.
On September 20, 1333, the new Cathedral of the Archangel, built by Ivan Kalita according to a tama, was consecrated in gratitude for the liberation of Russia from the famine caused by the rye that had grown and did not produce grain.
In 1329 he visited Veliki Novgorod, where Archbishop Moses occupied the episcopal see. From there, Theognost declared anathema to the Pskovites, who had accepted the dishonored prince of Tver Alexander Mikhailovich. Alexander left Pskov and went to Lithuania. After that, an embassy was sent to Ivan Kalita, headed by the Pskov mayor Seloga. Ivan Kalita approved peace with them and Theognostus blessed them.
Metropolitans of Kiev and all Russia: Photius, Theognostos and Cyprian

In 1330, Theognostos participated in the creation of the first grand ducal monastery - Spaso-Preobrazhensky. He blessed the transfer of part of the monks, led by the archimandrite, from the Danilov Monastery to the Moscow Kremlin. The first archimandrite of the new monastery was John, to whom Theognostus gave the first archimandrite in Moscow. The Spassky Monastery managed all the property of the Danilov Monastery - its cemetery and the villages belonging to it
Consecration of Theognostos to the Metropolitan of All Russia by Patriarch Isaiah

A year and a half later, in 1331, Prince Alexander returned and began to reign in Pskov, and a conflict arose between Moscow and Novgorod. The old desire of the north-west of Russia to gain ecclesiastical independence intensified: as archbishop of Novgorod they asked to choose a certain Arsenius who was in Pskov, elected by the council of bishops of Galicia-Volyn. They sent him to the metropolitan for consecration, but Theognostos put his candidate Basil Kalikas in that place. In the same year, Ivan entered the land of Novgorod with his troops and captured Torzhok, where he met Archbishop Vasily, who was traveling from Feognost to Novgorod.

In 1332, Ivan Kalita, having wasted considerable funds in the Horde, planned to organize a new stone church in Moscow for the arrival of Metropolitan Theognost from the Horde. He demanded from the Novgorodians to pay an increased amount of tribute (in particular, "Zakamsk Silver") and, after receiving a refusal, in addition to Torzhok, he also captured the peak of Bezhetsk. The negotiations ended with Archbishop Vasily going to Pskov and making peace between Pskov and Novgorod.

In 1336, through the mediation of Metropolitan Theognost, Ivan Kalita made peace with Novgorod, became Prince of Novgorod and received the due tribute.

Under Theognostos, his predecessor, Metropolitan Peter, was canonized in 1339. In 1339-1340, the Siya Gospel was written in Moscow, which is now kept in the Library of the Russian Academy of Sciences.

Theognostos managed to close the Lithuanian Metropolis that was open. There was also a metropolitan of Galicia: Patriarch Isaiah elevated Fyodor of Galicia to the position of metropolitan in 1331-1332. It was not possible to close immediately: in 1337-1338 it was reopened and existed until 1347.

Like his predecessors, Theognos undertook journeys throughout his metropolis. Theognostos traveled to the Horde twice. The first trip was made in 1332 under Ivan Kalita, the second trip (1342) he made during the Great Reign of Simeon Ivanovich the Proud. Theognostus faced a big problem in the Horde: someone told Khan Janibek that the metropolitan was collecting large incomes from the clergy and that he had a lot of money, and the Khan demanded payment from him from the entire clergy. Theognostos endured all kinds of tortures in the Horde, gave up to 600 rubles to various powerful people, and insisted that the khan confirm for the church all its previous benefits with a new label.

He died on March 11, 1353 of the plague. He was buried at the altar of the Assumption Cathedral in the Moscow Kremlin.

In 1471, his remains were found incorruptible, but they rest in secret. Her local celebration was established in the 19th century. Currently, Theognostos is a general saint of the church. The memory of Saint Theognostos is celebrated on March 14 (27).

In culture
Theognostos plays in Dmitry Balasov's novels "The Burden of Power" and "Simeon the Proud" from the "Sovereigns of Moscow" series.