Πέμπτη 8 Φεβρουαρίου 2024

Apollo

Temple of Zeus, Olympia, West Pediment, Apollo, Eurythia, Didameia, Pirithous
θεῶν ὀλοώτατε πάντων

(Ιλ., Χ15)
Ἄπολλον· Ἄπολλον·
ἀγυιᾶτ', ἀπόλλων ἐμός.
ἀπώλεσας γὰρ οὐ μόλις τὸ δεύτερον.
(Αισχ. Αγαμέμνων, 1080)

Apollo, a multifaceted "shamanistic" God, enlightener and healer at the same time ("Paion", from paio, the healer with a simple attack of the hand) master of Divination, creative inspiration ("Musagetis") and Music.

The god of light and sun, poetry, music and divination. In the hymn to the Pythian Apollo, the Muses sang, the Graces and the Hours danced, and Apollo played his lyre. Therefore he was the leader of the dance of the Muses, the Musician, and the lyre was his instrument. The ancient Greeks had given him the epithets Aigenetes (the one who gives birth without ceasing), Akersekomes (the one with long hair), Cecibolos (the one who shoots his arrows from afar), Phoebus (the shining god) and Chrysokomi (the one with blond and golden hair).

In Greece, his worship was divided between two main sides, the "healing-divining" / Doric of Delphi, and the "solar" / Ionic of Delos, quite different between them, but at the same time complementary.

Apollo (Attic, Ionian, and also Homeric Greek: Απολλον, Apollōn (born Απολλονος); Doric: Απελλον, Apellōn; Arcadocypriot: Απειλον, Apeilōn; Aeolian: Απλον, Aploun; Latin: Apollō) is one of the 12 gods of Olympus, god of music, light, patron of the arts and divination.
Head of Apollo. National Archaeological Museum no. 47. Pentelic marble. From Athens. East of Olympia. Height 0.30. 2nd c. A.D. Type of Apollo Kassel.

Ἀπόλλων, ὁ, γεν. -ωνος, αιτ. Ἀπόλλωνα, συγκεκ. Ἀπόλλω, κλητ. Ἄπολλον (η πρώτη συλλ. είναι μακρά στον Όμηρ. χάριν του μέτρου)· ο θεός Απόλλων, γιος του Δία και της Λητούς, αδελφός της Αρτέμιδος, σε Όμηρ. κ.λπ.· στον Όμηρ., οι άνδρες που βρίσκουν αιφνίδιο θάνατο λέγεται ότι φονεύονται από τα ἀγανὰ βέλεα του Απόλλωνα· πρβλ. Ἄρτεμις.
Ἀπολλώνιος, -α, -ον, I. αυτός που αναφέρεται ή ανήκει στο θεό Απόλλωνα, σε Πίνδ. II.Ἀπολλώνιον, τό, το ιερό του Απόλλωνα, σε Θουκ.

Ἀπόλλων
Other forms
Ἀπείλων (Apeílōn) — Arcadocypriot
Ἀπέλλων (Apéllōn) — Doric
Ἄπλουν (Áploun) — Thessalian
Ἀπέλον (Apélon) — Pamphylian

The etymology is uncertain. Probably from Proto-Greek, or from an older, obsolete verb meaning "to drive away," as in evil (via Klein from Usener). Socrates in Cratylus connects it with: "simple"), and ἀειβάλλον ("always shooting"). Plotinus, in his work Enneades .5.6.26-30, claims that the Pythagoreans derived it from ἀ- (a-) and πολῠ́ς (polús) to render Apollo, literally 'one without parts', as a 'symbol » of the Unit.
It is sometimes said to be derived from *Apeljōn to synchronize the Arcadocypriot and Doric variants with the Hittite deity Apaliunas, Hittite 𒀀𒀊𒉺𒇷𒌋𒈾𒀸 (A-ap-pa-li-u-na-aš).
Myths about his birth
The most widespread myth about his birth states that it took place on the island of Ortygia (today's Delos) from Leto, goddess of the starry night, who was the wife of Zeus before Hera. Because of Hera's great jealousy of Leto, no place would accept her to give birth, except Ortygia. It was an island, which until then was floating freely in the waves, so it was difficult for Hera to detect the location where Leto had taken refuge. Later, Zeus stabilized the island in order for the birth of Apollo to take place. The labor pains lasted nine days and nine nights, and then Eileithyia, the midwife whom Hera purposely kept near her, was able to escape to help the soon-to-be Leto. Artemis was born first and then Apollo. Ortygia was named Delos, because there the god Apollo was revealed (became delos, i.e. manifest).
Statuette of Apollo. National Archaeological Museum no. 223. Marble. From Sparta. Height 0.30. 2nd c. A.D. Type of Apollo Kassel.

According to other opinions, Diodorus the Sicilian claims that the birthplace of Apollo is not Delos, but Crete. However, the Greekness of Apollo is disputed by modern researchers. Some argue that it comes from the North, others from the East. Ancient sources state that Apollo came or retired every year to the land of the Hyperboreans. The fact that the melodious swan of the god is a northern bird, and that the electricity associated with it is a northern product also contributes to support this version. Others consider the island of the swans, Eligoland, as the place of origin of Apollo. However, the most prevalent version seems to be that Apollo comes from Asia Minor, specifically from Lycia. It is characteristic that he is called Letoidis, i.e. son of Letus, something that happened very often in Lycia, while Greeks were very rarely named after their mothers. Leto probably came from Lycia, where a word similar to her name meant "woman". Apollo himself was called Lykios and the Delians believed that he spent the winter months of the year in Lycia. His celebration was set on the seventh day of the month, according to Babylonian custom. The pre-Homeric poet Olin, who also came from Lycia, was the founder of the Delphic oracle, inventor of the hexameter and praiser of the deities of Delos. Finally, it is characteristic that although Homer describes the god Apollo as the equal of the Olympians, in the Iliad he appears together with his sister Artemis fighting on the side of the Trojans and against the Achaeans, while all the other gods are on their side , except for Ares and Venus who are considered gods of foreign origin.

Pre-Homeric tradition
According to pre-Homeric tradition, it was Apollo and Paris who killed Achilles, the greatest and most famous hero of the Achaeans. It is most likely, therefore, that the Greeks first came into contact with the religion of Apollo on the Asia Minor coast, somewhere between 1100 and 800 BC. In the Iliad, he is the great war god patron and ally of the Trojans and Hector's main defender and helper. He raises his aegis against the Achaeans and with his battle cry "melts the courage in their breasts and they forget their warlike spirit". Elsewhere in the Iliad, we watch Apollo, using his divine powers, strip Patroclus of his chariots and strip him piece by piece of Achilles' glorious invincible armor to make it easier for Hector to kill the Achaean hero with deception. Elsewhere, Achilles seems to realize that the invisible arrows that kill his companions come from a divine hand, but he does not know why the god is angry with them. Also, Apollo is the god of prophecy and divination. Calchus, the soothsayer of the Greeks, turns to him for oracles related to the plague that afflicts the Achaean camp. He learns the cause of the god's anger and it is clarified that the god who can bring darkness and death, "swift as night", is himself bright as light. His other nickname, Phoebus, is derived from there. Other known invocations of him are Agraios, Agretis, Aktios, Amyklaios, Gennitor, Deiradiotis, Dionysodotis, Enagonios, Epakiios, Helios, Carneios, Kitharodos, Kourotrophos, Musagetes or Musigetes. Nomios, Ogaios, Ogeatas, Ptoos, Pythios, Spondios, Tmoos, Tyrites, Hyperboreios etc.

Battle with Python and Delphi
Important for the religion and the honor to Apollo is the related myth about the fight of the god of Light and Music with the dragon Python. According to other versions of the myth, the god's antagonist is the dragon Delphini. Python was descended from Gaia and Euripides refers to him in Iphigenia in Taurois as "gas pelorion teras", which descended on the fertile plain of Crisis, sowing destruction and death. Leto and the Nymphs watched Apollo's fight with this lizard beast, encouraging the god and then singing hymns and paeans to celebrate his glorious victory. Python had pursued Leto when she was pregnant, at the behest of the jealous Hera, so killing him was an act of reverence and a sign of Apollo's love and respect for his mother. However, he had to atone after this murder. According to another variant of the myth, Apollo succeeded his predecessor Pyrrhus or Lykos or Deucalion in the area of Delphi. In fact, the specific struggle between these two deities is said to echo conflicts between peoples.

The names Pythia (the festival in honor of Apollo) and Pythia (the priestess of the oracle of Delphi) derive from the incident of the extermination of Python. Apollo intervenes twice more in mythology in favor of his mother: In the first, he kills the giant Tityus, son of Elara, who tried to rape her. In the second he leads to death the seven sons of Niobe, together with his sister Artemis, who killed her seven daughters. The cause of these deaths is that Niobe, though mortal, had boasted that she had 14 children, while Leto had only two, thus committing blasphemy.
Statue of Apollo. National Archaeological Museum no. 45. Pentelic marble. From Athens. Dionisou's Theatre. Height 1.76. 2nd c. A.D. 460-450 BC Type of Apollo of the Navel.

Foundation of the Oracle of Delphi
At Delphi Apollo had established his famous oracle, where Pythia sat, as priestess of the god, on a golden tripod covered with the skin of the Python and chewing laurel leaves, uttered in hexameter the oracle given to her by the god, who was always dark and enigmatic. For this reason, Apollo was also called Loxias, as "obliquely answering", according to a passage by Lucian, in the work Theon Dialogoi. People who had committed evil unknowingly or unwittingly and suffered for it, and generally those who wanted to know what they should do in order to be honorable in their actions and gain the support and favor of the gods, took refuge in Delphi. From Greek mythology we have various examples of heroes resorting to the Oracle of Delphi for an oracle: In Aeschylus' Eumenides, Orestes must go to Delphi to purify himself, although he killed his mother at the instigation of the god Apollo himself, defending his honor his father. Oedipus, as bequeathed to us by Sophocles, in his ignorance and in his attempt to find the truth and his individual identity, trying to avoid the fulfillment of the oracle of the oracle, how he will kill his father and enter into a love affair with his mother, in the end he unwittingly confirms her. This close relationship of the Oracle with moral issues and issues of justice, it was natural to make the Delphic Apollo the legislator of the Greek cities, especially in matters that needed religious sanction. According to Plato in the Politium, Apollo explains to all men the things of temples, sacrifices, and other services to the deity, as well as the formality associated with death and the afterlife. He thus becomes the founder of many ritual acts and of the formality of religion.
The Hyperborean Apollo
One of the most enigmatic myths is that of the Hyperborean Apollo. According to tradition, as described by Herodotus in his Histories (book D 4.32.1-4.35.4), when the moment of Apollo's birth was approaching, the Hyperboreans sent to Delos two virgins, Laodice and Hyperochis, which brought the offerings to the gods packed in wheat reeds to the goddess of childbirth Eileithyia, so that Leto would have a good birth. Two other girls, Argi and Opi, also went there with them. The Hyperborean virgins were considered the nurturers of the god Apollo and stayed forever in Delos. Their tomb was located in the temple of Artemis in Delos, while the inhabitants of the island dedicated offerings and sacrifices to them.

Hyperborea was the country where Apollo reigned and he visited every winter in his flying chariot, drawn by two swans, while in the spring he returned to Delos and Delphi. The Hyperboreans were considered the favorite priests and servants of the god and when Apollo was in Delos and Delphi, they sent gifts and offerings to honor him. Thus the mythical country of the Hyperboreans played an important role in the establishment of the cult of Apollo in Greece (Phokica X 5.7-5.8).

At the end of autumn the priests sang hymns that had a sad tone. They sang of Apollo's exile in Hyperborea. With the coming of the god in the spring they sang summoning hymns and celebrated the god's plague. Apollo was coming back on a chariot drawn by swans and holding the lyre and the laurel in his hand. In Delphi they celebrated his return with the feast of Epiphany.

The loves
In the love field, according to mythology, Apollo turns out to be rather unlucky. Teenagers who desire or relate to him are pursued by misfortune, like young Hyacinth. The women he falls in love with remain cold to him. Characteristic is the myth of Daphne, who in order to avoid the love union with the god turned into the laurel tree with the help of the Earth and since then, honorably became the sacred and beloved tree of Apollo and was used in his worship. However, from his loves are born outstanding figures of Greek mythology, who have qualities corresponding to their god father, such as Asclepius, Aristaeus, Arabus, Mopsos and Orpheus. As sacred plants of Apollo, laurel, cypress, hyacinth, palm, black poplar, and violet are mentioned.

Roman years
The cult of Apollo arrived and spread already very early in Rome. It is considered that it spread from Kymi (north of Neapolis) and from Southern Etruria (6th century BC). In 433 BC the first temple of Apollo was built, on the occasion of an epidemic that broke out and in order to appease the wrath of the god. However, there was already in Rome a sanctuary in honor of Apollo, the Apollinarion, near the Field of Mars.

The Roman Apollo was a healer and doctor, the Estiades called him Apollo Medicus, his mother was Latona and his sister Artemis – Diana. In the war against Hannibal, the Ludi Apollinares were inaugurated, to honor the god and help in the victory. Apollo played a particularly important role in the Hellenization of Roman religion. His priests, the quindicemviri, custodians of the Sibylline (enigmatic, religious) books of his cult, organized the Greek standard and contributed to the introduction of Greek deities into Rome. The temple of the god in Kymi, above the Sibyl's cave, dates from the 6th century. e.g. and that of the Flaminian field in Rome from 431 BC. Augustus chose Apollo as his patron god and attributed his victory against Antony and Cleopatra to the supremacy of Phoebus over the monstrous Egyptian and Eastern deities and thus, to a victory of ancient Greek over Egyptian religion. In 17 BC he inaugurated the Ludi Seculares, where Apollo and Diana emerged as gods equivalent to Zeus and Hera. Horace's Carmen Seculare presented Apollo and Augustus as being identified, having common qualities and the latter being the representative of the god on Earth and executor of the former's wills. Apollo was referred to as the leader of the Roman destinies, lord of the sun, archer, seer, chaser of desires, actor of the young, and similar qualities adorned the emperor - his protégé. In 12 BC the Sibylline books were moved from the temple of Zeus to the temple of Apollo, rebuilt in the meantime on the Palatine Hill.
Apollo as the Rising Sun, by François Boucher

Birth of Apollonian element
With the influence of Nietzsche and the spread of his philosophy and his books in recent years, the world began to see as fundamental in Greek religion the distinction and contrast between the bright, logical, orderly, prudent Apollo god of harmony and order, and to the emotional, mystical and insane Dionysus, god of drunkenness, instincts and impulsiveness. This contradictory division into an Apollonian and a Dionysian element prevailed, even though the connection of Apollo with the oracle of Delphi was not only based on rational factors, but mainly due to the political expediency of the time. In addition, his penchant for atonements is closer to the emotional than to the logical realm. However, with the rebuilding of the Temple of Apollo and the representation in it of both opposing deities, an attempt to bring together the elements and bridge the differences of the two Gods and the consolidation of a new era for religious worship becomes evident.
Apollo and the Muses on Parnassus, by Andrea Appiani

Relation of Apollo to Music
At the end of the first rhapsody of the Iliad (A 601-604) Apollo appears as Kitharodos and Musagetes.
[A 601-604] Then with a propane he was diving into the wind
Dainyd, nor what anger was caused by him, nor by the formingus Pericalleos that Apollo had,
Musaon tha᾿ aἳ ἄeidon ameifomenai ὀπὶ kalῇ. - Homer's Iliad from Wikimedia'
[A 601-604] They ate and drank of him all day until they were full,
and all their hearts rejoiced at the equal table, of Phoebus even the flamboyant guitar and the Muses
as they all chanted in harmony in their turn.

Temples of Apollo
Many temples were dedicated to Apollo in Greece and the Greek colonies. They show the spread of the cult of Apollo and the development of Greek architecture, which was based mainly on correctness of form and mathematical relationships. Some of the oldest temples, especially in Crete, do not belong to any of the other Greek orders. It appears that the first pavilion temples were rectangular wooden structures. The various wooden elements were considered divine and their forms were preserved in the marble or stone elements of the Doric temples. The Greeks used formal types because they believed that the world of objects was a series of formal forms that could be represented in many situations. Temples should be regular, and architects strived to achieve this aesthetic perfection. Since ancient times there were certain rules that were strictly observed in rectangular pavilions and obscene buildings. The first buildings were built narrowly to support the roof and when the dimensions changed some mathematical relationships became necessary to maintain the original forms. This probably influenced the number theory of Pythagoras, who believed that behind the appearance of things was the permanent principle of mathematics.

The Doric style was dominant during the 6th and 5th centuries BC, but there was a mathematical problem regarding the position of the triglyphs, which could not be solved without changing the original forms. The order was almost abandoned for the Ionic order, but the Ionic capital also posed an unsolved problem in the corner of a temple. Both orders were abandoned for the Corinthian order gradually during the Hellenistic era and under Rome.

Delphic Hymns
These are two hymns dedicated to the god Apollo that are found engraved in marble in the Treasury of the Athenians and constitute the largest part of the few examples of ancient Greek music.

Ορφικος Υμνος Απόλλωνος
[Ορφικος Υμνος Απόλλωνος] Ἐλθέ, μάκαρ, Παιάν, Τιτυοκτόνε, Φοῖβε, Λυκωρεῦ, Μεμφῖτ᾽, ἀγλαότιμε, ἰήιε, ὀλβιοδῶτα, χρυσολύρη, σπερμεῖε, ἀρότριε, Πύθιε, Τιτάν, Γρύνειε, Σμινθεῦ, Πυθοκτόνε, Δελφικέ, μάντι, ἄγριε, φωσφόρε δαῖμον, ἐράσμιε, κύδιμε κοῦρε, μουσαγέτα, χοροποιέ, ἑκηβόλε, τοξοβέλεμνε, Βράγχιε καὶ Διδυμεῦ, ἑκάεργε, Λοξία, ἁγνέ, Δήλι᾽ ἄναξ, πανδερκὲς ἔχων φαεσίμβροτον ὄμμα, χρυσοκόμα, καθαρὰς φήμας χρησμούς τ᾽ ἀναφαίνων• κλῦθί μου εὐχομένου λαῶν ὕπερ εὔφρονι θυμῶι• τόνδε σὺ γὰρ λεύσσεις τὸν ἀπείριτον αἰθέρα πάντα γαῖαν δ᾽ ὀλβιόμοιρον ὕπερθέ τε καὶ δι᾽ ἀμολγοῦ, νυκτὸς ἐν ἡσυχίαισιν ὑπ᾽ ἀστεροόμματον ὄρφνην ῥίζας νέρθε δέδορκας, ἔχεις δέ τε πείρατα κόσμου παντός• σοὶ δ᾽ ἀρχή τε τελευτή τ᾽ ἐστὶ μέλουσα, παντοθαλής, σὺ δὲ πάντα πόλον κιθάρηι πολυκρέκτωι ἁρμόζεις, ὁτὲ μὲν νεάτης ἐπὶ τέρματα βαίνων, ἄλλοτε δ᾽ αὖθ᾽ ὑπάτης, ποτὲ Δώριον εἰς διάκοσμον πάντα πόλον κιρνὰς κρίνεις βιοθρέμμονα φῦλα, ἁρμονίηι κεράσας {τὴν} παγκόσμιον ἀνδράσι μοῖραν, μίξας χειμῶνος θέρεός τ᾽ ἴσον ἀμφοτέροισιν, ταῖς ὑπάταις χειμῶνα, θέρος νεάταις διακρίνας, Δώριον εἰς ἔαρος πολυηράτου ὥριον ἄνθος. ἔνθεν ἐπωνυμίην σε βροτοὶ κλήιζουσιν ἄνακτα, Πᾶνα, θεὸν δικέρωτ᾽, ἀνέμων συρίγμαθ᾽ ἱέντα• οὕνεκα παντὸς ἔχεις κόσμου σφραγῖδα τυπῶτιν. κλῦθι, μάκαρ, σώζων μύστας ἱκετηρίδι φωνῆι. ' 

[Απόδοση] «Έλα, μάκαρ, θεέ Ιατρέ, που φόνευσες τον Τιτυό, Φοίβε, Λυκωρεύ, 2. Μεμφίτη, που τιμάσαι λαμπρά, ιήιε, (ιήκλητε) που παρέχεις ευτυχία, 3. χρυσολύρη, σπέρμιε (σπορικέ), αρότριε (αγροτικέ), Πύθιε, Τιτάν, 4. Γρύνειε, Σμινθεύ, φονέα του Πύθωνα, Δελφικέ, μάντη, 5. αγροτικέ, φωτοφόρε θεέ, αγαπητέ, ένδοξε έφηβε, 6. ηγέτη των Μουσών, δημιουργέ του χορού, μακροβόλε, τοξοβόλε, 7. Βράγχιε και Διδυμέα, τοξότη, Λοξία, αμόλυντε, 8. άνακτα της Δήλου που έχεις οφθαλμό που παρατηρεί συνεχώς τους ανθρώπους, 9. χρυσομάλλη, που μας φανερώνεις ξεκάθαρες προφητείες και χρησμούς. 10. Άκουσέ με που εύχομαι υπέρ των λαών, με ευφρόσυνη (αγνή) ψυχή. 11. Επειδή εσύ ατενίζεις σιμά σου (τόνδε) ολόκληρο τον απέραντο αιθέρα, 12. και την καλόμοιρη γη και από ψηλά και τις ώρες πριν 13. το χάραμα στο ήσυχο σκοτάδι που έχει τα αστέρια για μάτια 14. εποπτεύεις έως τα βαθιά θεμέλια, κατέχεις (παρατηρείς) τα πέρατα του κόσμου 15. όλου. Εσύ το ξεκίνημα και το τελείωμα και αυτό που θα γίνει στο μέλλον, 16. ο παντοθαλής, εσύ κάθε πόλο (άξονα της γης) με την πολύηχη κιθάρα 17. εναρμονίζεις, άλλοτε μεν βαδίζοντας στα τέρματα της νεάτης (κατώτατη χορδή), 18. άλλοτε εδώ στην ύπατη (υψηλότατη χορδή), κάποτε στη Δωρική παράταξη3 19. κάθε άξονα αναμειγνύεις (συνδυάζεις), διαχωρίζεις τα βιοσυντηρούμενα γένη, 20. αναμιγνύοντας αρμονικά την παγκόσμια μοίρα των ανθρώπων. 21. Ανέμιξες σε (δύο) ίσα μέρη τον χειμώνα και το θέρος, 22. ταξινόμισες τον χειμώνα στις ύπατες (ύψιστες), το θέρος στις νεάτες, (κατώτερες) 23. και τον Δώριο (ήχο) στου πολυαγαπημένου έαρος το εποχιακό άνθος. (μεσαίες) 24. Γι’ αυτό οι άνθρωποι σε προσφωνούν με την επωνυμίαν άνακτα, 25. Πάνα, θεό με δύο κέρατα, που δημιουργείς τους συριγμούς των ανέμων. 26. Αυτό επειδή κατέχεις την σφραγίδα που σημαδεύει τα πάντα στον κόσμο. 27. Άκουσέ με μακάριε, και σώσε τους μυημένους με την ικετευτική φωνή.»

Προς τιμήν του Απόλλωνα έχουν γραφτεί λυρικοί ύμνοι και από τον Θράκα μουσικό και ποιητή Φιλάμμωνα, γιο του θεού από τη Χιόνη.
Votive relief, in which Zeus and the Apollonian Trinity are depicted

The epithets of Apollo
• Agreus = protector of the wild, of hunting. It is found in two inscriptions in northern Thessaly, one of which was discovered in the ruins of the temple of the goddess Athena Poliadas, in Gonnos, Larissa.
• Agyeus = protector of doors
• Akersekomis = the one who has the komen not kekarmenen, aei young, hence also Kourotrophos (protector of youth). Indeed, the god is rarely shown with a beard.
• Alassiotis was an ancient Greek religious invocation, specifically a name of the god Apollo, which was used in Cyprus and particularly in the city of Alasia. This invocation refers to a bilingual inscription, in the Phoenician and ancient Cypriot languages, discovered in Tamassos, Cyprus. In addition, in the excavations carried out in Engomi in the year 1949, a remarkable bronze statue of "Alasiotos" Apollo was discovered (The entry of the same name in the New Greek Encyclopedia "Hari Patsis", volume 3, page 599) • Anax and chieftain; genetor; epicurean.
• Dolphin or Delphinus. The relationship of the god with the sea is indirect due to his place of birth, which his believers only approach by sea. The appearance of the dolphins was an indirect approval of the god for their pilgrimage. He himself, in the form of a dolphin, will lead the Cretans to the region of Crisa, to become the first priests of Delphi.
• Argyrotoxos, Toxoforos, Ekatos, Hekativolos, Ekivolos, Hekativeletas, Ekaergos (from ἑkas = far away). As an archer and archer, the god appears at the beginning of the Iliad (A 43-53).
• Karteros (=brave), because of his connection with war
• Loimios (=he who causes plagues), Iatro, Paiaon (Grammiki B'), Akestor and Akesios (=healer), Alexikakos, Apotropaios.
• Musagetas or Musegetes, Nymphegetes, Euymnos, Kitharodos, Ipaion (< paean), because of his relationship with music, the Muses and the Nymphs.
• The epithets Aiglitis, Lykios, Lykigenis, Lykoktonos, Helios, Fanaios, Chrysaor are connected to the light and color of the sun.
• Phoebus (= pure, holy) from Themis's sister Phoebe, Thurios from the mother of Chaero Thoros, Pythios from the snake Python Telphusius, from the nymph Telphusa and Mount Telphusius, near Kopaida, where Apollo would establish the sanctuary displacing the nymph from him, if she had not cunningly directed him to Crisa, to Parnassus; the god avenged her by providing her waters. All three last epithets are associated with his struggles to prevail in the sanctuary of Delphi.
• The epithets Smintheus (protector of agriculture), Nomios (protector of shepherds and herds), Parnopius (he who drives away locusts) Agraios (protector of hunters) are connected to the regularity of agricultural work, as determined by the movement of the sun and the season and associate the god with the land and the crops.
• Club limit for the protection he provided to club meetings.
• Delios, from the place of his origin, Kynthios and Kynthogenes (from Mount Kynthos of Delos).
• Didimaeus, because he is a twin with Artemis.
• Clarios from his oracle at Claros, Akraifiaios from the Boeotian city Akraifia, where he was worshipped.
• Soothsayer and soothsayer, soothsayer, soothsayer, because he gave oblique oracles, i.e. ambiguous ones.
Apollo, wall painting from Pompeii, 1st century AD

Celtic surnames and cult titles
Apollo was worshiped throughout the Roman Empire. In traditionally Celtic lands, he was most often seen as a healing and sun god. He was often identified with Celtic gods of a similar character.

Apollo Atepomarus («ο μεγάλος ιππέας» ή «κατέχει ένα μεγάλο άλογο»). Ο Απόλλωνας λατρευόταν στο Mauvières (Indre). Τα άλογα ήταν, στον κελτικό κόσμο, στενά συνδεδεμένα με τον Ήλιο.
Apollo Belenus («λαμπρός» ή «λαμπρός»). Αυτό το επίθετο δόθηκε στον Απόλλωνα σε μέρη της Γαλατίας, της Βόρειας Ιταλίας και του Noricum (μέρος της σύγχρονης Αυστρίας). Ο Απόλλωνας Μπεληνός ήταν θεός που θεραπεύει και τον ήλιο.
Απόλλων Κουνόμαγλους («άρχοντας κυνηγόσκυλο»). Ένας τίτλος που δόθηκε στον Απόλλωνα σε ένα ιερό στο Nettleton Shrub, Wiltshire. Μπορεί να ήταν θεός της θεραπείας. Ο ίδιος ο Cunomaglus μπορεί αρχικά να ήταν ένας ανεξάρτητος θεός θεραπείας.
Απόλλων Γκράνος. Ο Γκράνος ήταν θεός της άνοιξης που θεραπεύει, που αργότερα ταυτίστηκε με τον Απόλλωνα.
Απόλλων Μαπόνου. Ένας θεός γνωστός από επιγραφές στη Βρετανία. Αυτό μπορεί να είναι μια τοπική σύντηξη του Απόλλωνα και του Maponus.
Apollo Moritasgus («μάζες θαλασσινού νερού»). Επίθετο για τον Απόλλωνα στην Αλεσία, όπου λατρευόταν ως θεός της θεραπείας και, πιθανώς, των γιατρών.
Apollo Vindonnus («καθαρό φως»). Ο Apollo Vindonnus είχε ναό στο Essarois, κοντά στο Châtillon-sur-Seine στη σημερινή Βουργουνδία. Ήταν θεός της θεραπείας, ιδιαίτερα των ματιών.
Απόλλων Βιροτούτης («ευεργέτης της ανθρωπότητας»). Ο Απόλλων Βιροτούτης λατρευόταν, μεταξύ άλλων, στο Fins d'Annecy (Haute-Savoie) και στο Jublains (Maine-et-Loire)
Πηγές / Παραπομπές
Βαγγέλη Πεντάζου - Μαρίας Σαρλά, Δελφοί, Β. Γιαννίκος - Β. Καλδής Ο.Ε., 1984, 18.
 «Δήλος». Αρχειοθετήθηκε από το πρωτότυπο στις 6 Μαρτίου 2016. Ανακτήθηκε στις 1 Απριλίου 2015.
 Ιλιάς, 15, 322
 Βαγγέλη Πεντάζου - Μαρίας Σαρλά, 1984, 19.
 ὔτεκνος δὲ οὖσα Νιόβη τῆς Λητοῦς εὐτεκνοτέρα εἶπεν ὑπάρχειν· Λητὼ δὲ ἀγανακτήσασα τήν τε Ἄρτεμιν καὶ τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα κατ᾽ αὐτῶν παρώξυνε, καὶ τὰς μὲν θηλείας ἐπὶ τῆς οἰκίας κατετόξευσεν Ἄρτεμις, τοὺς δὲ ἄρρενας κοινῇ πάντας ἐν Κιθαιρῶνι Ἀπόλλων κυνηγετοῦντας ἀπέκτεινεν. ἐσώθη δὲ τῶν μὲν ἀρρένων Ἀμφίων, τῶν δὲ θηλειῶν Χλωρὶς ἡ πρεσβυτέρα, ᾗ Νηλεὺς συνᾐκησε. κατὰ δὲ Τελέσιλλαν ἐσώθησαν Ἀμύκλας καὶ Μελίβοια, ἐτοξεύθη δὲ ὑπ᾽ αὐτῶν καὶ Ἀμφίων... ( βλ. Απολλόδωρου Βιβλιοθήκη, Βιβλίο Γ', κεφ. 5.6. )
 Ιερά Φυτά
 Γιάννης Λάμψας, Λεξικό του Αρχαίου Κόσμου, τ. Α΄, Αθήνα, εκδόσεις Δομή, 1984, 408-413.
 Ομήρου Ιλιάδα από βικιθήκη
 από τη Βικιθήκη - Ἀπόλλωνος, θυμίαμα μάνναν
 «Φιλάμμωνας». mythotopia.eu. Ινστιτούτο Επεξεργασίας του Λόγου. Ανακτήθηκε στις 26 Αυγούστου 2023.
 Γενεαλογικό Δέντρο των Ολύμπιων Θεών που βασίζεται στη Θεογονία του Ησίοδου .
 Σύμφωνα με τον Ὀμηρο, Ιλιάδα 1.570–579, 14.338, Οδύσσεια 8.312, Ο Ήφαιστος ήταν γιος της Ήρας και του Δία, Gantz, σελ. 74.
 Σύμφωνα με τον Ησίοδο, Θεογονία 927–929, Ο Ήφαιστος γεννήθηκε μόνο από την Ήρα χωρίς πατέρα, Gantz, σελ. 74.
 Σύμφωνα με τον Ησίοδο, Θεογονία 886–890, για τα παιδιά του Διός από τις επτά συζύγους του, η Αθηνά ήταν κόρη του Δία και της Μήτις. Ο Δίας εμπόδισε τη Μήτι να γεννήσει και την κατάπιε αλλά το παιδί εκείνο ήταν η Αθηνά η οποία γεννήθηκε τελικά από το κεφάλι του. ", Gantz, σελ. 51–52, 83–84.
 Σύμφωνα με τον Ησίοδο, Θεογονία 183–200, Η Αφροδίτη γεννήθηκε από τον αφρό που δημιούργησαν τα γεννητικά όργανα του Ουρανού, Gantz, σελ. 99–100.
 Σύμφωνα με τον Ὀμηρο, Η Αφροδίτη ήταν κόρη του Διός (Ιλιάδα 3.374, 20.105; Οδύσσεια 8.308, 320) και της Διώνης(Ιλιάδα 5.370–71), Gantz, σελ. 99–100.